Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Saturday, September 27, 2008

HIV-1 Nef-HIV protein discovery holds promise for powerful AIDS drugs

HIV-1 Nef - HIV protein discovery holds promise for powerful AIDS drugs and Anti aids hiv vaccine
There is a good news and a good develpoment in research and develpoment of anti aids therapy and anti aids drugs and hiv vaccine research, we have found HIV-1 Nef which can be used to develop a protien by external synthesis ..geneticaly enginerred.. and this protien can be used to tag anti HIV druds ,these drugs can be specificaly delived to the celss which are infected and which are hiden in tissues ...Auther of this blog.
Scientists at University of Michigan have discovered a key HIV accessory protein, called HIV-1 Nef, that thwarts the body's normal immune response - a finding that may pave the way for more powerful AIDS drugs.
While current anti-HIV drugs are life saving, they cannot root the virus out of the body. Infected cells are able to live on, undetected by the immune system, and provide the machinery for the virus to reproduce and spread.
"There's a big hole in current therapies, in that all of them prevent new infection, but none attack the cells that are already infected and hidden from the immune response," said Kathleen L. Collins, M.D., Ph.D., the study's senior author and a U-M associate professor in both internal medicine and microbiology and immunology.
She added: "People have to be on the existing drugs, and when they're not, the virus rebounds. If we can develop drugs that seek out and eradicate the remaining factories for the virus, then maybe we could eradicate the disease in that person."
HIV-1 Nef is known to keep immune system cells from doing their normal jobs of detecting and killing infected cells.
The new study shows how Nef disables two key immune system players inside an infected cell. These are molecules called major histocompatability complex 1 proteins (MHC-1) that present HIV antigens to the immune system, and CD4, the cell-surface receptor that normally locks onto a virus and allows it to enter the cell.
According to Collins. MHC-1 is similar to motion detectors on a house, which send the first signal to a monitoring station if an invader breaks in.
"The immune system, especially the cytotoxic T lymphocytes, are like the monitors who get the signal that there's a foreign invader inside the cell, and send out police cars. The 'police' are toxic chemicals produced by T lymphocyte cells, which kill the cell that harbors the invader," she said.
Nef's actions allow active virus to hide undetected and reproduce by in effect pushing the MHC-I proteins into an infected cell's "trash bin" so they fail to alert the T lymphocytes. Also, once a cell has been infected, Nef destroys CD4. thus, new virus is encouraged to spread to uninfected cells.
While Nef's activities are variable and complex, the new findings suggest that the many pathways involved may end in a final common step. That could make it possible to find a drug that could block several Nef functions.
Now, researchers are screening drug candidates to find promising Nef inhibitors. Such drugs, which are at least 10 years away from use in people, would supplement, not replace, existing anti-viral drugs given to HIV-infected people. The new drugs would target the reservoirs where the virus hides.
Collins said that in developing countries, the new drugs could have a huge impact. Today, children born with HIV infection start taking the existing anti-HIV drugs at birth.
She said that it's very hard to continue costly treatments for a lifetime. But if children could be cured within a few years, global HIV treatment efforts could spread their dollars further and be much more successful.
The study appears online in the journal PLoS Pathogens. (ANI)Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms



Last updated: 27-Sep-2008

Saturday, September 20, 2008

Early Antiretroviral Treatment for People With HIV/TB Coinfection Could Reduce Mortality by Half, Study Says

Dear friends in today’s post I will like to bring in your notice that HOW IMPORTANT is
Starting immediate medication and chemotherapy for HIV and for anti tuberculosis treatment medication on time this approach gives enough increase in life span of a individual so that he actually and live his life .
In combined effort in fighting against HIV AIDS disease and my effort to keep on sharing knowledge on HIV AIDS, I will like to put stress on early medication, early starting of chemotherapy for HIV that is antiretroviral drugs treatment and anti tubercular drugs can provide a individual increased life, till we get a prompt solution for this disease I advocate that we should treat patients with HIV AIDS Personalized vaccine,
For knowing what are personalized HIV aids vaccine research read my earlier posts on this blog ,
Early Antiretroviral Treatment for People With HIV/TB Coinfection Could Reduce Mortality by Half, Study Says
Aids patients with tuberculosis opportunistic infection who has started antiretroviral treatment within six months of starting TB treatment had a 55% lower mortality rate than people with HIV/TB opportunistic infection who did not begin antiretroviral therapy until after they had finished a six-month TB treatment course, according to a study conducted by researchers at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, Business Day reports For the study, Salim Abdool Karim -- pro vice-chancellor of the university and director of the Center for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa, or Caprisa -- and colleagues assigned 645 people with HIV/TB coinfection whose CD4+ T cell counts were less than 500 into one of three groups. One group which received both TB and HIV treatment immediately; another group which received TB drugs for two months before beginning antiretroviral therapy; and a third group which began antiretroviral treatment after completing a six- to eight-month TB treatment course. All study participants were able to begin antiretroviral therapy "at any time if judged clinically necessary" by physicians, Karim said.The study found that 26 of the 214 people in the group who did not receive antiretrovirals until completing TB treatment died and that the mortality rate in the group was 55% higher than the two groups receiving integrated HIV/TB treatment. Among the 431 participants in the two integrated HIV/TB treatment groups, 24 people died, the study found (Cullinan, The Star, 9/18). The study's findings prompted the trial's safety committee to halt research on the delayed antiretroviral treatment group and provide antiretrovirals to those participants. Research will continue among the other two groups, Karim said.According to Karim, 70% of the 353,000 people diagnosed with TB in South Africa last year also were HIV-positive. In addition, 150,000 people with HIV/TB coinfection had CD4+ counts between 200 and 500 and would have benefited from taking antiretrovirals before finishing TB treatment (Business Day, 9/18). Karim added that the study's findings could prevent up to 10,000 deaths annually.World Health Organization guidelines indicate that HIV-positive people whose CD4+ counts are below 50 should begin taking HIV and TB drugs immediately; those with CD4+ counts between 50 and 200 should start antiretroviral therapy after two months of TB treatment; and those with CD4+ counts greater than 200 should complete TB treatment before beginning antiretroviral therapy.
Reaction Kogie Naidoo, a study researcher, said people with HIV/TB coinfection "do worse than those without TB, regardless of their CD4+ count" Karim added that the study's findings "provide compelling evidence to support the World Health Organization's call for greater collaboration between TB and HIV treatment services." Mark Dybul, the U.S. global AIDS coordinator who administers the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, said PEPFAR is "committed to increasing screening for both HIV and TB, which will allow greater numbers of patients to benefit from these study results" Francois Venter, president of South Africa's HIV Clinicians Society, said the study has "begun to answer one of the most important questions for the HIV field -- when we can start antiretrovirals safely in people with TB.Venter added that the "bottom line is that a laissez-faire attitude" toward HIV/TB coinfection "is not justified" and that health workers "need to start seeing TB as an emergency".
You can ask me any question on this topic I will reply all of them .

Information about HIV Virus AIDS symptoms

Tuesday, September 16, 2008

Abstract for Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Recent Seroconverters with HIV-1 Subtype C Infections in India

Dear friends i have writen in this blog about various drugs and chemotherapy , a possible directions for research on hiv aids vaccine and chemotherapy.
One of my earlier post is dedicated to personalised hiv aids vaccine and hiv part vaccine research
and last post was completely dedicated to how to prevent spread of hiv aids what are the prevtive steps which are required to be taken by one ,so that one is not infected which hiv virus.
In todays post it i am giving some abstract of a research work by my great Indian Scientists which shows how HIV virus is defering from individual to individual ,how it is showing variation in its constitution , which is a hurdel for developing a hiv vaccine there is variation in genetic material of HIV virus from infected individual to individual that is the reseason in following abstract we will see that there are some individuals not responding to antigen.
This approach is great and very valuable for entier research on hiv aids
Well actualy if we draw a map of research , by going backwords like analysing how HIV virus reacts to antibodies ,what is a commen site of attachment to cd4, and i am sure that there is a site which is not differing on HIV virus even though there is a great variation in genetic material of hiv virus , still the mode of attachment is same ,that is CD4 receptor so there is one hope , that if we engeneer some antigen which can counter act as antigen which will stimulate human immune system and probably impart some immunity against upcoming hiv infection ,
If we combine this antigen with best chemotherapy available for inhibiting reverse transcriptaese and intigraese enzyme in hiv , and drugs which interfare in up take of thimine by hiv virus , probably we will win over this disease ,
Individuals can have better improved life , higher life span and one can live this life as life is precious one has to live it ,with every thing, be the disease or any thing but one should fight and live this life as it is very precious .
Neutralizing Antibody Responses in Recent Seroconverters with HIV-1 Subtype C Infections in India...Abstract
Smita Kulkarni, Srikanth Tripathy, Raman Gangakhedkar, Sushama Jadhav, Kalpana Agnihotri, Suvarna Sane, Robert Bollinger, Ramesh Paranjape. AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.
The longitudinal heterologous neutralization response against two HIV-1 subtype C isolates was studied in 33 ART-naive individuals recently infected with HIV-1 subtype C from India. Seven of 33 (21%) seroconverters demonstrated a consistent response against both isolates (65–100% neutralization) , whereas the remaining 26 (79%) were nonresponders. Four of the seven responders demonstrated a neutralization response (>75% neutralization) within 2–3 months of infection and in the remaining three, the response was demonstrated between 22 and 38 months after infection. In the past,HIV vaccines targeted the V3 region for the development of neutralizing antibodies. However, recent studies have shown that anti-V3 antibodies are generated after HIV-1 infection, but are not effective in neutralizing virus.In this study, the V3 sequences of HIV-1 from seven responders were analyzed and compared with those from nonresponders. The V3 region sequences from early and late responders did show certain mutations that were not found in the nonresponders; however none of these mutations could explain the neutralization responses. This suggested that HIV-1 envelope regions other than the V3 domain may be involved in generating a neutralization response. This is the first report that describes the pattern of emergence and persistence of the heterologous neutralization response in recently HIV-1 subtype C-infected individuals from India and studies its association with sequence variation in the V3 region.
This approach is great and very valuable for entier research on hiv aids as it will healp us to find the actual non varient moiety in HIV virus and we can work out on that.Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms



Last updated : 16-Sep-2008

Sunday, September 14, 2008


I am writing constantly on how we can develop a sure shot and a complete remedy or a treatment for treating HIV AIDS, almost all posts before this posts are completely dedicated for HIV AIDS treatment and drugs and vaccine research ,but I feel since the spread of this disease is so fast that I am very much concerned for that , and it requires to be controled and a awareness is required to be generated in minds of peoples so that we can take preventive steps , so no one is infected and we get rid of this HIV AIDS from this world.
If one reads this page carefully and keep in mind and practice in his life and tel , I am sure that purpose of so many peoples working on this disease HIV AIDS research if fulfilled.

First learn how HIV AIDS is transmitted?
An Individual who has HIV carries the virus in certain body fluids like blood, semen, vaginal secretions, and breast milk and serum watery secretion which come out from small cuts which do not conatin blood cells, HIV virus is transmitted only if such HIV-infected fluids come in direct contact with the bloodstream of another person.
This kind of direct entry can occur
(A) Through the of the vagina, rectum, mouth, and the opening at the tip of the male sex organ;
Unprotected sexual intercourse should be avoided, avoid it

(B) Through intravenous injection with a syringe

Sharing needles or syringes with someone who is HIV infected,
You don’t know who is having infection so do not use a used needles or syringes

(3) Through a break in the skin, such as a cut or sore. Usually, HIV is transmitted through:

Infection during pregnancy, childbirth, or breast feeding—known as mother-to-child transmission, consult your gynecologist and find how you can protect your child from
This in today’s world it is completely possible only thing is that you have to give so much attention to it.

How HIV is not transmitted.

HIV virus is very fragile , it get killed by even strong sun light, if it is in open air,
It is not transmitted through food or air , coughing or sneezing). No case is reported till today that a person is infected by a household member, relative, co-worker, or friend through casual or everyday contact such as sharing eating utensils or bathroom facilities, or through hugging or kissing. Most scientists agree that while HIV transmission through deep or prolonged "French" kissing may be possible, it would be extremely unlikely. screening the blood supply for HIV has virtually eliminated the risk of infection through blood transfusions (and you cannot get HIV from giving blood at a blood bank or other established blood collection center). Sweat, tears, and urine do contain HIV virus so one should take a proper care for this

I have written in my earlier posts about HIV AIDS research chemotherapy and personalised HIV AIDS vaccine research go through this website you will find a valueable information on HIV AIDS.
You can ask me questions reguarding HIV AIDS research and treatment I will reply to your question over this blog.There is other website which gives detailed information on Preventive steps for hiv aids and this website will give you detailed information on HIV AIDS drugs and vaccine research.

Friday, September 12, 2008


HOW WE CAN MAKE USE OF PART VACCINE AND CHEMOTHERAPY TOGATHER AS TARGETED DRUG DELIVERY TO INFECTED CELLS AND TO VIRUS.I want to share some knowledge on few research going on in field of vaccine development around the world , lets hope it will help some day to some on for doing and taking some great idea out of it and we get a vaccine or a drug for treating HIV AIDS, my intention of writing this blog is to share the knowledge base to every one . I am also inviting scientists in this field to write me their ideas so that we can share them around the world over this platform.
We know that we can produce a potent cancer vaccine which could be manufactured from a patient's own cancer cells and used to treat their tumour.
The technique involves the use of ultra-violet light to trigger the vaccine in a process known as photo-dynamic therapy (PDT). Tests on mice have shown that the technique produced a personalised vaccine with the same power as one grown in the laboratory, but in much less time.
The research was carried out by scientists at the British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, who were seeking new applications of PDT.
The technique uses ultraviolet light to trigger drugs when they reach their target, which means larger doses can be given without fear of toxic reactions in other parts of the body.
PDT has also been shown to stimulate an immune response against a tumour.
The new study involved taking samples of cancer tissue from mice with tumours and priming them with ultra-violet light. The cells were then grown overnight in the laboratory before being re-injected into the mice the following day.
The researchers found that priming the cells with ultra-violet light produced an increased immune response in the mouse when they were re-injected. Shining ultra-violet light on the cancer cells in effect created a potent cancer vaccine, though the mechanism behind this process is not understood.
The benefit of the technique is that it creates a personalised vaccine that can be injected straight back into the mouse with a minimum of delay, cutting out the time-consuming process of cultivating cells. The results of the study were published yesterday in the
British Journal of Cancer.
Dr Mladen Korbelik, senior author of the paper, said: "The prospect of using samples from a patient's own tumour to treat them is really exciting. This technique could mean that treatment is delivered more quickly and, most importantly, is tailored to the individual's cancer.
"Although our results showed this method produces powerful cancer vaccines, we're confident that this technique can be advanced further to be even more potent and effective."
Dr Lesley Walker, director of cancer information at Cancer Research UK, said: "This is an interesting application of PDT. Using targeted treatments with better delivery and manipulating the body's own immune system to fight the disease means patients would experience fewer side effects."
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms
This same technique can be developed for HIV Virus to specifically deliver a very potent drug to the virus and also the vaccine protein will help in developing immunity against the virus .we can tag a very potant antivirus drug with the part vaccine , personalised vaccine and tagged with antiviral drugs by formulating both in to a liposome drug delivery system. Here we can make use of photo-dynamic therapy .

Wednesday, September 10, 2008

Dr. Jean-Pierre Routy collaboration with Dr. Rafick Sékaly developed personalized immunotherapy for HIV-infected patients

Dr. Jean-Pierre Routy collaboration with Dr. Rafick Sékaly developed personalized immunotherapy for HIV-infected patients
Dear friends here is a hope for life coming up with the development of personalized HIV vaccine being developed , as I am writing on this blog which is dedicated to the cause of humanity and to give lacks of peoples around the world for life .and I am again sure that we will win over this disease , tomorrow when you will woke up you will find that one day we have got a promising and permanent solution against this disease ..bvwaghmare
Since long time, main hurdle for successful deriving an AIDS vaccine has been the high genetic variability of the HIV virus.
Dr. Jean-Pierre Routy and his team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), in collaboration with Dr. Rafick Sékaly from the Université de Montréal, have overcome this difficulty by designing a personalized immunotherapy for HIV-infected patients.
The team's findings were presented on August 5 at the XVII International AIDS Conference in Mexico City.
"Our approach is unique in the world: no one else has yet developed customized immunotherapy using the virus from individual patients," said Dr. Routy. And I feel this is a one of sure shot for treating AIDS HIV patient ..(Auther of this blog)
"This experimental technique remains long and costly for the moment, but we're hoping it will hold the promise of a completely innovative and widely available treatment in the future."
This immunotherapy is based on the properties of dendritic cells, whose role is to present specific proteins from infectious organisms at their surface, thereby alerting the rest of the immune system. In collaboration with Argos Therapeutics, the researchers designed a study in which the dendritic cells of nine study patients were multiplied in vitro and then treated with the RNA (ribonucleic acid) from the virus that had infected each patient. A virus sample was taken before the administration of any antiretroviral treatment.
The surfaces of these manipulated dendritic cells present an increased number of HIV proteins, which allows them to stimulate the cytotoxic response of a certain type of immune cell called CD8+ lymphocytes. After receiving multiple subcutaneous injections of these dendritic cells, eight of the nine patients involved experienced a significant increase in CD8+ lymphocyte activity.
"At this stage, we have shown that the technique doesn't cause side effects or an undesirable auto-immune response," said Dr. Routy. "Health Canada has approved a multicentre clinical trial across the country that will let us further assess the technique's effectiveness at controlling HIV reproduction. We're hoping that the FDA in the United States will also give us the go-ahead soon so that our pharmaceutical partner, Argos Therapeutics, can begin testing in the United States."
While more research needs to be done, this new target may lead to an innovative therapeutic approach to fight the AIDS pandemic.
Dr. Jean-Pierre Routy is a practitioner in the Division of Hematology at the MUHC as well as a researcher in the Infection and Immunity Axis at the Research Institute of the MUHC. He is also an Associate Professor of Hematology at McGill University as well as a senior clinical researcher with the Fonds de la recherche en santé du Québec (FRSQ).
This study was funded by the Canadian Network for Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics (CANVAC), the Canadian HIV Trials Network (CTN), the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR), the US National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Argos Therapeutics.
I congratulate Dr. Jean-Pierre Routy and his team from the Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), Dr. Rafick Sékaly from the Université de Montréal ,Sir we are proud of you and hope you will get success in your research soon, I pray to god for that.(bvwaghmare auther of this blog..Pharmacist from Mumbai university)

Dr. Anthony Fauci is cautiously optimistic that eventually some AIDS/HIV patients will be cured.

Dr. Anthony S. Fauci, world-renowned HIV/AIDS researcher who has been on the forefront of battling the disease since it was discovered, previews his speech to this week's International AIDS Conference. Dr. Anthony Fauci is cautiously optimistic that eventually some AIDS/HIV patients will be cured.
Dear friends as i am always wrting about the possible positive out come over the treatment for this disease , here is anather hope of ray Dr. Anthony S. Fauci .I Pray to god that realy his word become true and in this world we will see that there is a treatment coming up 100% effective for treating this disease .
This week, more than 25,000 people from the global HIV/AIDS community are in Mexico City, Mexico, attending the XVII International AIDS Conference. I am pleased to be among them.
This is the first International AIDS Conference to be held in Latin America, a region hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS pandemic, but also a place where exceptional scientific and public health advances have been made. The theme of the conference is Universal Action Now, which stresses the need for scientists, policymakers, activists and other concerned citizens everywhere -- in rich countries and poor ones -- to work even harder to defeat a scourge that already has claimed more than 25 million lives. We have made considerable progress against HIV/AIDS, not only on the scientific front, but also with regard to the political will, funding and essential public health efforts on the ground that are delivering medicine, care and prevention services. However, much remains to be done, as 2.7 million people worldwide were infected with HIV in 2007. Watch more on the International AIDS Conference .In the United States, the rate of new infections continues at an unacceptably high level, especially in the African-American community. In my home city of Washington D.C., a staggering 5 percent of the population is infected with HIV, a rate that rivals those in sub-Saharan Africa. Eighty percent of my infected neighbors in Washington, D.C., are African-American. Throughout the United States, we are seeing a resurgence in HIV cases among men who have sex with men of all races, with African-Americans again hardest hit. Despite what you might hear, the AIDS pandemic is still raging.
Many hundreds of presentations at the conference are dealing with important research on the basic biology of HIV and its disease-causing mechanisms; the complex immune responses to the virus; and advances in tools to diagnose, treat and prevent HIV.
My talk on Wednesday, is called "Looking to the Future: New Directions in HIV/AIDS Research" and will look at all these issues, and the many challenges (and opportunities) in AIDS science. But I hope to leave the audience with at least a tentative answer to an important question I get all the time: Will we ever have a cure or a vaccine for HIV?
Despite our considerable success in managing HIV infection and improving the length and quality of life for people living with HIV, there is no well-documented case of anyone being truly cured of HIV disease. This is because HIV is unlike virtually any other virus in its ability to hide from the immune system in protected cellular sanctuaries that we call "latent reservoirs."
We know that these reservoirs are established within days of infection, and even our most potent combinations of anti-HIV drugs are unable to purge the virus from these hiding places, even in people who have been on therapy for a decade or more. If you take a patient off his or her anti-HIV therapy, the virus hiding in these reservoirs springs back, and soon billions of viruses are renewing their assault on immune system cells and other organs. Photos chronicle AIDS treatment worldwide .Our best hope for eradicating HIV from the reservoirs may be to diagnose and treat people aggressively very early in infection, before the reservoirs have become too large. Our laboratory and other groups are testing this approach with intensive regimens of new drugs that prevent the virus from entering cells or from inserting its genes into a cell's DNA.
Even if the virus is not completely eradicated, such early, intense treatment, perhaps with the help of immune-boosting drugs, might keep the reservoir small -- and the immune system strong -- thereby allowing a person to come off therapy. This would be a "functional" cure. Other approaches are being pursued as well. A cure is critical to our attempts to ultimately contain the pandemic. Currently, for every person put on therapy, two to three people are newly infected. As antiretroviral therapy is at present a lifelong commitment, it is extremely unlikely that we will have the logistical or financial capacity to reach and treat -- indefinitely -- everyone who requires antiretroviral therapy. As we search for a cure, we should of course continue our efforts to provide proven, lifesaving antiretroviral drugs to every person who needs them, regardless of where they live.
Many promising avenues of prevention are being discussed in Mexico City, but none is more essential than an HIV vaccine. HIV vaccine development has been frustrating and challenging for a number of reasons, including the fact that the virus mutates rapidly, hides from the immune system, and targets and destroys the immune system cells that are successful in fighting and clearing most other viruses from the body.With HIV we will have to do better than nature if we are to develop a vaccine; HIV is unlike the situation with other viral diseases such as measles and influenza, where we have been able to mimic natural infection and induce protective responses with vaccines. My institute and many other organizations around the world are working on this problem, and advances are being made. For example, we have made progress in identifying the structures on the virus to which infection-fighting proteins that can neutralize HIV -- so-called neutralizing antibodies -- bind. Now, our challenge is to turn these structures into vaccines, and conduct the clinical trials that prove they work in people.My complete talk will be available as a webcast at the conference Web site, but let me give you the quick bottom line: I am cautiously optimistic that we will be able to cure some patients under certain circumstances, and I am also cautiously optimistic that we will develop a vaccine that will protect some people against HIV infection, or slow the progression of disease in some patients who do get infected.
Meanwhile, we need Universal Action Now to accelerate the exceptional momentum of the past few years -- particularly during the past year -- in delivering proven tools of HIV prevention and therapy to communities around the globe.



Last updated:10-Sep-2008