Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Monday, November 15, 2010

symptoms of HIV infection , early symptoms of HIV, symptoms of AIDS

Which are early symptoms of HIV virus infection ?

After encountering HIV virus, for how many days HIV is not detected in Tests?

How much time it takes to get detected HIV positive after an exposure to HIV virus?

A test for HIV will not get detected positive immediately after an exposure , if a person has got exposure to HIV then it may take about two to twelve weeks to show positive results, it may also take about six months to get detected as HIV positive in the tests.

If a person is exposed to HIV virus by any way , it is better to start antiretroviral drug therapy immediately.

Also if one tests late after exposure to HIV virus and gets detected as HIV positive then the antiretroviral drugs are found less effective, hence one should start taking drugs early or immediately after exposure after consultation with your physician.

Symptoms of HIV infection , AIDS Symptoms.
The symptoms of AIDS are basically outcome of poor immune , or poor resistance to fight any incoming infection in to affected body , in individuals with healthy immune systems who are not infected their body is able to resist kill any incoming infectious bacteria and viruses.
In almost cases AIDS symptoms are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites those are normally are in abundance around human body and normal human body controls
Opportunistic infections are most common in individuals affected with AIDS.Opportunistic infections affect almost every organ human body.
Individual with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various disease like Kaposi's sarcoma, and lymphomas.

Individuals affected with AIDS shows systemic symptoms of infection as follows
Fevers, sweating particularly at night, swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.
Opportunistic infections that an AIDS patients may develop is the factor of kind of exposure to an infection.
Pulmonary infections
Pulmonary infections occur when the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
(TB) is a unique symptom of AIDS among the peoples infectected with HIV as TB bacteria is transmissible to immunocompetent people through the respiratory route, early-stage HIV dignosis is and strting a treatment is most important factor to avoid deths due to TB. TB is preventable with drug therapy .
Care should be taken in drug therapy so that multidrug resistance do not occure.
Tuberculosis with other HIV co-infection (TB/HIV) is one of the major problem.
Early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB presents as a pulmonary disease.
and in advanced HIV infection, TB presents with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and symptoms are not localized to one particular site, also affects bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system
Gastrointestinal infections
Esophagitis , inflammation of lining of the lower side of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV infected peoples, Gastrointestinal infections are normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.
chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasite infestetion; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis).
Diarrhea can be one of side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV infection, a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection. It may also be (common for Clostridium difficile). In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIV-related weigh loss or muscle wash out.

Neurological and psychiatric considerations
HIV infection lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, by infection of the nervous system by organisms which were once not harful, it may be a direct consequence of the illness.

Toxoplasma encephalitis

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii; it infects brain, resulting in to toxoplasma encephalitis, it also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.
Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It causes fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. individulas may also develop seizures and confusion.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients.

AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection . HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia cells are infected by HIV virus and secrete neurotoxins which are of both host as well as viral origin. Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are because of low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads.
AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder. Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course. This symptom is can be avoided if one takes proper medication .
Tumors and malignancies
Individuals infected with HIV virus show substantially increased incidence of several tumors and malignancies.
With todyas available new antiaids drugs and medicines which are so promising that if a patient is taking proper medication and his CD 4 count is not allowed to drop down , then all above symptoms are well controlled and life of HIV infected persone is extended to considerable value,

In contries where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies and symptoms has decreased.

Other infections
Opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
CMV causes colitis, and CMV retinitis may cause blindness.
Penicilliosis caused by Penicillium marneffei is the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals .

Infection of Parvovirus B19 in AIDS patients , results in to anemia, this is difficult to distinguish from the side effects of antiAIDS drugs used to treat AIDS and HIV virus infection.

Signes and symptoms of AIDS and HIV infection-->

Last updated: 15-Nov-2010

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