Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Repurposing of existing Drugs in prevention and mitigation of Novel Corona Virus 19

Which are best candidates from existing drug molecules for use as antiviral drug against Novel Corona Virus 19

Drugs that inhibit neucleotides by presenting themselves ascompetitive inhibitor of RNA elongation and protien synthesis by inhibiting Uracil, Cytocin, and Adenine neucliotides,  inorder to achive this drugs those resemble in the structure orientation to Uracil, Cytocin, and Adenine neucleotide to be studied.

Following drugs are allready in existance and apporoved as antiviral drugs.

1) Lopinavir.(L)
2) Ritonavir. (R)
3) Cidofavir (C)

These drugs to be taken in combination all togather as
One dose L/R and anather of C will ensure that the viral RNA synthesis is provided comititive drug molecules for compititive inhibition of RNA elongation.

Floowing is the detail chart with srtctural similarity identification for selction of drug candidate is done.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Steps in prevention of Corona Virus 19 spread

How to prevent spread of Corona Virus 19 ?

Following steps will help to save lives of millions of people from getting SARS COV 19 infection.

An Alcohol or Iso Propyl Alcohol based hand sanitizer may not be so effective as  that of Dilute  Solution of bleaching powder.
Prefer Dilute solution of bleaching powder allow it's contact for minimum 10 minutes.

1.Keep yourself away from a person by minimum 6 feet when you are outside of your home.

2. Currently self quarantine is very important in preparation of spread of Corona Virus 19.

3. Don't  go out of door of your home.

4. Don't touch outer surface of door of your house or  ATM key pad, lift keypad, Staircase handrail, wash your hand immideatly with bleaching powder solution or hand sanitizer.

5.Hand Sanitisers may not be available in market therefore make use of bleaching powder which kills all types of Viruses at concentration of 200 ppm and more.

6.Make Chlorine solution by dissolving 4 to 5 %  bleaching powder in water and keep in your house for washing hand and outer surface of door with dilute solution of bleaching powder. Wash door bell, door foot steps corridor with bleaching powder solution every after 6  hours in day time.

7. Use nose masks when you go out : Nose maks of virus free filter pore size are not available in market. You can make it at home by stitching from keepold cloths and keep double layer of absorbent cotton inside mask now they are  now as ofgood as N95 grade.

 8.Wash hands with bleaching powder solution or hand sanitizer and sprinkle water on nostrils when you go inside your house from outside.

 9.Doctors who come in contact with patients. Swab your hands and lips with Povidone Iodine ointment , (Cipladne, Wokadine, Betadine). During handling of COVID postive patient. Swab your inner surface of nostrils with above mentioned Povidone Iodine ointment.

10.Take care of your neabours by sprinkle bleaching powder in corridor. Spread this technical information to everyone.

11. Stop spreading Corona Virus by not spiting in open make use of wash basin and run water and wash it.

12. Don't do Shakehands. Don't hug.

13. Decontaminate Cloths of  Infected person by diping in to  of dilute solution of potassium permanganate freshly prepared solution. Or Bleaching powder allow minimum contact time of the potassium permanganate solution or bleaching powder solution for 10 minutes.

15. Large comunity of people in India live in slums where they use comman toilet, so every 4 hours spread bleaching powder in toilets
Use nose mask while using comman toilet, wash hands with bleaching powder solution. Keep plenty of bleaching powder in such comman toilet place.

16. Do Yoga everyday. Yoga boosts immunity and protect from disease progression and will save your life.

Medicines to be used are recommended to doctors only. Avoid self medication.

Following Medicines to be used. In combination as combination therapy.

1. Hydroxy chloroquine + Lopinavir +Ritonavir + Saquinavir

As viral load control measure.

To ease the lungs tissue damage, , use Chlorphenarmine maliate  or Montelukast Sodium.

Plasma therapy :
Plasma of a patient who has recovered from infection and tests negative in PCR test to be taken and used to treat a patient who is critical.
Extract plasma in respective blood group wise and keep it for treatment for same blood group patient.

With this I am tagging  personally and  writing open Post on this blog tagging honorable Prime minister Shri Narendra Modi ji and request him to spread this information and save lives.


Monday, March 2, 2020

Prevention and mitigation strategy for novel coronavirus infection

How to prevent corona virus infection spread.
Following techniques will provide significant protection from protecting an individual from getting COV19  infection even while living with person infected with Novel Corona Virus.
These techniques are not adapted in china and other countries hence the spread and lethal impact of the outbreak is very huge and life threatening.
In emergency situations masks and sanitisers will not be available since almost all hand sanitizer are Isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol based hand Sanitisers in critical situations they will not be available to general public . 
Therefore alternative decontaminimaging agent which are not much discussed and hand made cloth masks too can be prepared which can prevent virus transmission.

1)Prevention: (P)

P1) Use Nose mask that contain activated charcoal bed :

How to make activated charcoal Mask ? 

Take adsorbent cotten, make a thin pad by spreading it in thin layer, air should easily pass through this, place thin layer of activated charcoal, make such two layers of activated charcoal and cotton. Take porous cloth and cut it in mask shape, keep these two pads over it, fix it by stitching or by making a bag like, or pocker in mask, and use these mask.
Before making mask use clean cloth, it should be disinceted by dipping inside solution of a disinfectant. 
Activated charcoal pads can be replaced in two days with fresh one.

P2) Sanitisation and decontamination:
Bleaching Powder Solution :

Very effective and cheaper and widely available sanitiser is bleaching powder . It contains chlorine and it is very powerful decontaminimaging agent it is active against all sorts of Viruses and bacteria.
Make 3 To 5% solution of bleaching powder in water and use this as decontaminimaging agent or as sanitiser.
Sprinkle this solution bover the articles and body part which you feel that might be potentially contaminated.
Make continuous thin film of bleaching powder solution over hand or article allow the chlorine react with contamination. It will take about 5 to 10 minutes.
Avoid contact of bleaching powder solution with eyes. Bleaching powder is widely available and is very reliable as disinfectant for virus contaminants.

Dilute solution of Potassium Permanganate:

Dilute solution of Potassium permanganate or sodium Hypochlorite solution to disinfect the flooring and the tabletops, and hand in event of potential risk of patient of corona virus is around the area.
How to make Chlorine disinfectant.
Dissolve about 200 ppm to bleaching 250 ppm powder in water and use 
Make very dilute solution of Potassium permanganate, and use it freshly to decontaminate hand, use as hand wash, higher concentration may cause skin irritation, avoid contact with eye.
Use goggles or spectacles, to protect eyes, decontaminate spectacles with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate.
To decontaminate surrounding use fogger machines or any suitable equipment that generate fumes of the chemical.
Following chemicals can be used to decontaminate infection in environment and in surrounding
  1. Spread bleaching powder in surrounding, since its widely available its best decontaminating agent.
  2. Use H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) in fogger and fog the area where a potential contamination iso.
  3. Wipe the flooring and wall and handrail table top with chlorin water, prepared out of bleaching powder. Use freshly prepared chlorin water from bleaching powder.
  1. Following antimicrobial preparation can be used to decontaminate. Hands, and infected material.
a) Iodine solution, ( Cipladin, Betadine, Wokadine)
b) Mecetronium ethyl sulphate (SterIllium )
c) Silver nitrate solution freshly prepared, d) Iso propyl alcohol, e) Ethyl Alcohol, f)chlorhexidine gluconate containing solutions.

Which body parts to protect.
Avoid touching your eyes, lips and tongue, nostrils, wear spectacles.
Use nose mask containing activated charcoal as described.
As far as possible keep lips closed, avoid speaking without mask.
Protect Ears, a small cotton plug can be used which should be replaced as and when required.

P3) How to protect viral entry in to body 

 Use occlusive methods.
  1. White soft paraffine (Vassaline) is a good occlusive agent, nostrils should be covered from inside with thin layer of white soft paraffine which will protect from viral entry in to body.
  2. Silver sulfadiazine creams can also be used as occlusive barriers inside the nostrils.
  3. Creams containing chlorhexidine gluconate.
Do gargles frequently with water, if there are patients surrounding, use solution of chlorhexidine gluconate to do gargles.

Treatment and medication:
Currently there is no medicine available which is approved by FDA for treatment of novel coronavirus.
Following drugs are recommended after study of the medicinal chemistry and mode of action of the available drugs.
Following suggested medicines best suit for treating the novel corona virus infection.

1.Urgent ayurvedic remedy:
Drink 50 ml of water in which small pinch of Haldi (curcuma longa) is added do not boil after addition of haldI.
Drink this three times a day, do not exceed this.
Haldi contains potent cytotoxic curcumin, which will help in prevention of virus replication in body.

2. Drug for treatment:  (recommendation for medical professionals only)
Following drugs should be used in treatment in combination

A) Combination therapy. (Tetracycline Or Chloroquine + Proteases inhibitors+ Amantadine)
1)Tetracycline + Amantadine+ Protease inhibitor drugs.
In combination with any one drug in following list of protease inhibitors.
Protease inhibitor drugs
Protease inhibitor drugs.
atazanavir (Reyataz)
darunavir (Prezista)
fosamprenavir (Lexiva)
indinavir (Crixivan)
lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)
nelfinavir (Viracept)
ritonavir (Norvir)
saquinavir (Invirase)
tipranavir (Aptivus)
atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz)
darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix)

B) Combination therapy with (Tetracycline Or Chloroquine+ 5 Flurouracil +Amantadine)

C) Combination Therapy with (Tetracycline +Amantadine+ Any one drug from Nonnucleoside RT inhibitors)

Nonnucleoside RT inhibitors 
1) Rilpivirine
2) Etravirine
3) Delavirdine, DLV
4) Efavirenz, EFV
5) Nevirapine, NVP

Drugs are cytotoxic hence should be taken only after prescription of a medical practitioner.

2.Serum Therapy:
Serum to be separated from infected and cured person and to be used as antibody treatment to person who has got infection recently.

Survival trick:
One can survive even after getting corona virus infection in event, person has got strong lung capability, and has got good immune power.
Yoga is found to be boosting the interlukin 2 system that improves the immunity, therefore yoga will be very important part for patient for survival.

Following Yoga therapy is very important

1)     Yogic cleansing methods
1.      Nostril wash: Yoga kriya :  Neti kriya to be done In event of exposure threat.
2.      Gastric Cleansing : Yoga kriya, Jal Dhauti. In event or after the suspected infection.

3. Boosting immunity :  

Following Yoga Kriyas are very effective in boosting immunity against viral infections, we had done experimentations on HIV patients which we could observe that the body immunity get improved with yoga kriyas.

Shri Ambika Yoga Kutir Thane can be referred for this.

1.Regularly perform : Kapalbhati.
2.Regularly perform Pranayam Kriya: Ujjayi.
3. Omkar Sadhna: Provides heat energy in body due to its unique sound vibrations, boosts immunity.
Not every patient die due to viral infection, person with lower immune power and week lungs are susceptible hence lungs capability can be improvised with yoga, Kapalbhati, and Pranayam kriyas.
Don’t do pranayama, Kapalbhati, Ujjayi kriyas in open environment, but should be done in closed room with clean environment.
Self quarantine:
In event someone is tested positive doctor should confirm with confirmation test PCR technique for presence of viral RNA.
Ensure that you do not spread contamination to others, stay at home, use nose mask and follow the advise provided above.
Do not panic one can survive and get cured from corona virus infection, your fear will bring down the immunity which might be lethal for you, therefore regular yoga practice must be followed.

How to make activated charcoal: 
Activated charocal is easily available in market in good qty.
If its not available it can be made by incernating coconut shels at temprature 900 Deg Celcius.
While temprature is coming down it is spyed with hot steam.
So one should have a steam generating equpment, after taking out the charcoal from the heater or burner, slight steam is exposed over the charcoal.

For Yoga techniques to perform see:

Following link for Information: How yoga is effective in lowering HIV viral load.

B V Waghmare (2020). Prevention and mitigation strategy for novel coronavirus infection : DOI

Sunday, November 29, 2015

HIV vaccine by step by step immunization strategy

Antibodies isolated from HIV positive individuals were successful in preventing proliferation of HIV in animal, while it was not preventing HIV in the infected individuals.

What is that difference that antibodies work against HIV in animal model, is now key towards development of a successful vaccination program against HIV.

HIV virus infect B cells which impart protection by developing immunity against any kind of infection in our body. HIV infects and destroy B cells in our blood. Also HIV change genetic material, DNA of infected human B cells and use these cells for making copies of new HIV virus.

Why vaccine is not completely developed so far because HIV changes its outer protein coat sequence, frequently so that a vaccine against protein coat of HIV is not successful, it may work in one individual while it may not work in other.

How ever there was a finding that Antibodies produced in people which are infected with HIV can protect animals from developing HIV infection and disease AIDS.
Therefore it is possible to develop a vaccine which will work in human model as well.

Team of scientists working with NIH have found a way for developing a successful vaccine against HIV, by combining step by step stimulation by combining three different proteins which will work as antigen and elicit immune response against HIV.

1) VRC01 antibody
2) eOD-GT8 60mer
3) BG505 SOSIP

Combining above proteins for immunization in step by step manner may protect human against HIV infection.

1) VRC01 are antibodies which binds with trimeric gp120 region and inhibit attachment of virus to human B cells.
2) BG505 SOSIP: Are two more similar kind of protein which binds with HIV and neutralize its ability to infect B cells.
3) eOD-GT8 60mer is a nano-particle protein, it is found that this elicit immune response where above two proteins could not, it help in stimulation and then production of precursors required to produce antibodies against HIV.

eOD-GT8 60me NanoParticle
Director of National Institute of Health United States, Dr. Francis Collins have expressed his hope for success for these strategy over his blog.


Broadly Neutralizing HIV antibodies for passive immunization

B V Waghmare (2015). HIV Vaccine heading toward success. Combination of HIV neutralizing antibodies and Nanoparticle protien eOD-GT8 60mer are good hope for getting a effective anti HIV vaccine.

Sunday, September 7, 2014

Protein that protect from TB infection developing in to lung infection

Biomarker that will help predict if a person will develop fetal lung disease associated with TB infection and can be used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Every individual who encounter Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection do not develop an active form of TB, such individuals may test positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or antibody test.

A protein interleukin-32 is found in such individuals which protect them from developing TB infection into an active form of TB or fetal lung disease. Interleukin-32 help immune cells of body to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in presence of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is very important for protecting individual from developing active form of TB, in presence of Vitamin D protein interleukin-32 induce killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Presences of biomarker interleukin-32 in patients with latent TB can be used to predict if such patients will develop active form of TB or never. Synthetic Interleukin-32 can be used to develop pharmaceutical substance to treat TB patients with deficiency of interleukin-32 as well.

Source :

Last updated: 07-Sep -2014

B V Waghmare (2014). Interlukin 32 biomarker that will predict relapse of tuberculosis infection and will be used in treatment of TB

Tuesday, September 2, 2014

HIV neutralising antibodies for passive immunization.

Advanced treatment of HIV infection with HIV neutralizing antibodies under development.

Anti retroviral drugs must not be discontinued so as to keep HIV viral load under control to maintain quality of life, still many patients discontinue taking drugs for many reasons like anti retroviral drugs have their own set of side effects and complications, availability.
Now such patients have better option as scientists from National Institute of Health United States of America have developed broadly active antibodies against HIV, which are tested in patients who have discontinued their medicines and were able to lower viral loads, in laboratory study it is proven that new CD4 cells were not infected by HIV virus in presence of these antibodies incubated for sufficient time.
These antibodies are Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) which are called as PGT121, VRC01 and VRC03. These antibodies can be used for immunization for patients and healthcare personals at high risk. Combination of these antibodies along with HAART will help in reducing drug load and their side effects after prolonged use.


Last updated: 02-Sep-2014

Authored By : B V Waghmare

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Immunotoxin destroys HIV cells novel approach in antiretroviral therapy

New class of antiretroviral drug being developed that destroys HIV infected human cells hidden deep inside tissues. Bacterial toxin which can eliminate tissue cells responsible for proliferation of HIV.

If you refer this page you will come to know that there are drugs available to treat HIV virus infection by attacking almost at all stages of infection of HIV (mode of action) except one point, that is destruction of HIV carrying human cells, there is no drug available which can find out HIV infected tissue cells and destroy them. Getting such drug would be a great breakthrough towards complete removal of HIV from human body.

A first step towards development of this novel class of antiretroviral drug is made by Dr. Edward A. Berger of (National Institute of Health) NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and Dr. Ira Pastan of NIH’s National Cancer Institute (NCI). To understand how this drug will work it is important to understand how HIV virus infects and multiply.

During infection process HIV virus first attaches to a Human CD4 cell and inject its RNA in to human CD4 cell; HIV RNA is converted in to DNA strand which is capable of transcribing HIV proteins essential for multiplication of HIV. This DNA get permanently attached to human DNA of human CD4 cell, and convert this human cell in to a HIV virus factory.

Therefore even though there are drugs designed to kill HIV virus at all stages, these HIV producing human cells are alive inside human body hidden in various tissues, which becomes active as soon as antiretroviral drug therapy is stopped. Therefore to eliminate HIV DNA carrying human cells is equally important to achieve complete removal of HIV virus from human body.

Cytotoxic HIV-specific immunotherapy is found to destroy human cells responsible for reproduction of HIV in is a toxin derived from bacteria and is known as immunotoxin 3B3-PE38.
This toxin was found to be effective in reducing the HIV viral load in humanized rat model. It was found that dose of immunotoxin along with antiretroviral drug therapy (ART) was successful in reduction of HIV loaded or HIV DNA carrying CD4+ T cells, macrophages and thymocytes.


Authored by : B.V. Waghmare

Last Updated : 28-Jan-2014

B V Waghmare (2014). Drug that destroy HIV carrying lymphocytes; will result in complete treatment that will not require to taking antiretroviral drugs through out life.

Thursday, August 22, 2013

Dolutegravir The Second drug in the class of HIV integrase inhibitors

Second drug in the class of HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors approved by US FDA to treat HIV infection

Until 13-Aug-2013 there was only one drug Raltegravir available under the class of HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors, on 13-Aug-2013 US FDA approved one more drug Tivicay (dolutegravir), HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitor to treat HIV infection. It is found to be effective in patients which develop resistance to earlier available drug Raltegravir and for patients who have not yet received any HIV drug therapy.

HIV infection is critical to treat because it causes integration of HIV viral gene in the form of provirus DNA in to human DNA , HIV forms its DNA through a mechanism of reverse transcription from the viral RNA. Thus using metabolic activities of a normal human cell for its (HIV) reproduction
In-order to control the viral load, drugs which inhibits the almost all stages of infection are used. This is the base for combination therapy.

Information on Tivicay (dolutegravir):

Drug Tivicay (dolutegravir) belongs to HIV integrase Inhibitor. Drug Tivicay (dolutegravir) is approved by US FDA under fast track approval process for drugs, its efficacy and safety was evaluated in clinical trial conducted on 2,539 patients, Tivicay (dolutegravir) was given along with Atripla, a fixed dose combination drug which contain efavirenz, emtricitabine and tenofovir, and results were found satisfactory in reducing HIV viral count and increasing CD4 counts in participants taking Tivicay (dolutegravir), it showed satisfactory results in reducing viral load, patient aged 12 year with at least 40 kg who has not taken any anti retroviral drug therapy ( Treatment Nave ) were also shown reduction in viral count.

Drug Drug Tivicay (dolutegravir) is also been studied for use along with Abacavir and Lamivudine, in a new new fixed dose combination for its effectiveness and safety in reducing HIV viral count.

Source :

Authored by : B.V.Waghmare

Last Updated : 22-Aug-2013

Antiretroviral drugs available to treat HIV infection

Details of Antiretroviral drugs. 
1) Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) : In this class there are about thirteen drugs available.
2) Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs) : In this category Five drugs are available
3) Protease Inhibitors (PIs) : In this category 10 Drugs are available.

4) Fusion Inhibitors : One drug is available

5) Entry Inhibitors - CCR5 co-receptor antagonist: One drug is available

6) HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors : Two drugs are available.

Antiretroviral drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection

Following is the list of drugs used in the treatment of HIV Infection

A) Multi-class Combination Drugs.

1) Efavirenz, Emtricitabine and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
2) Emtricitabine, Rilpivirine, and Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate
3) Elvitegravir, Cobicistat, Emtricitabine, Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate

B) Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)

1) Lamivudine and Zidovudine
2) Emtricitabine, FTC
3) Lamivudine, 3TC
4) Abacavir and Lamivudine
5) Zalcitabine, Dideoxycytidine, ddC
6) Zidovudine, Azidothymidine, AZT, ZDV
7) Abacavir, Zidovudine, and Lamivudine
8) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and Emtricitabine
9) Enteric coated didanosine, ddI EC
10) Didanosine, dideoxyinosine, ddI
11) Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, TDF
12) Stavudine, d4T
13) Abacavir sulfate, ABC

C) Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
1) Rilpivirine
2) Etravirine
3) Delavirdine, DLV
4) Efavirenz, EFV
5) Nevirapine, NVP

D) Protease Inhibitors (PIs)
1) Amprenavir, APV
2) Tipranavir, TPV
3) Indinavir, IDV,
4) Saquinavir (no longer marketed)
5) Lopinavir and ritonavir, LPV/RTV
6) Fosamprenavir Calcium, FOS-APV
7) Ritonavir, RTV
8) Darunavir
9) Atazanavir sulfate, ATV
10) Nelfinavir mesylate, NFV

E) Fusion Inhibitors
1) Enfuvirtide, T-20

F) Entry Inhibitors - CCR5 co-receptor antagonist
1) Maraviroc
G) HIV integrase strand transfer inhibitors
1) Raltegravir
2) Dolutegravir

Source :

Authored by : B.V.Waghmare

Last Updated : 22-Aug-2013

Sunday, January 13, 2013

New Drug for Non Infectious Diarrhea Associated with antiretroviral drug treatment in HIV infection

Second botanical drug approved by US FDA for symptomatic relief from diarrhea associated with HIV infection and its drug treatment.

Symptomatic relief form diarrhea incase HIV infection, is very important for continuation of antiretroviral drug therapy, as antiretroviral drug therapy itself can cause diarrhea , and it is one of reason why many tend to stop HIV drugs just to get relief from symptoms of diarrhea.

US FDA has approved new drug Fulyzaq (crofelemer) for symptomatic relief from non-infectious diarrhea in adult patients on antiretroviral drug therapy. Fulyzaq (crofelemer) is a novel drug which is second most FDA approved herbal drug (drug from botanical origin) for symptomatic relief from diarrhea associated with HIV infection.

Inforation about Fulyzaq (crofelemer) :

Fulyzaq crofelemer is derived from latex of Croton lechleri Müll, and it is an oligomer , consisting subunits of , (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin linked to each other.

Mode of action :
Excessive water secretion in bowel causes diarrhea, it is because of excessive secretion of sodium ions and other electrolytes secretion in bowel, as a result patient suffer consistent watery bowel movements.
Drug crofelemer has unique property of blocking secretion of chlorine and calcium in to GIT and which reduce secretion of sodium and other electrolytes in bowel resulting in less amount of water secretion inside GIT and to protection from symptoms of diarrhea. Drug crofelemer blocks cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) stimulated “cystic fibrosis conductance regulator and calcium activated chloride channel” in GIT, the effect of drug is measured by presence of stool chloride ion. Before starting the drug Fulyzaq (crofelemer) it should be confirmed by test that diarrhea is non-infectious (not caused by bacterial, fungal or viral infection in GIT).

Diarrhea lasting for many days is one of symptoms of AIDS. Opportunistic infections and drug or antibiotics used to treat HIV infection and infections associated with HIV are responsible for causing diarrhea, sometimes drug resistance caused by drugs are responsible for growth of resistant Clostridium difficile infection which is one of cause for diarrhea related to HIV infection .

Sources :

Authored by : B V Waghmare

Last updated: 13-Jan-2013