Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Tuesday, March 31, 2020

Repurposing of existing Drugs in prevention and mitigation of Novel Corona Virus 19

Which are best candidates from existing drug molecules for use as antiviral drug against Novel Corona Virus 19.

1) Existing drugs which hold molecular similarities and properties which can potentially exhibit antiviral activity in treatment of novel corona virus 19 are listed below.

2) Diethylcarbamazine (DEC): Diethylcarbamazine(DEC) as Antiviral or in the therapy of novel corona Virus.

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) once was studied for enhancing the antibody generation in patients infected with HIV, and it is found that it has good antiviral activity as well.
Its molecular structure is makes it potential competitive inhibitor for pyrimidine bases  during transcription. Also a negative feedback mechanism can increase the antibody well before the virus becomes harmful to the lungs tissue.
a dose of 10 mg / per kg/ day will be useful in treatment of Novel Corona Virus19 and management of covid19.

Abstract from An available study conducted by Kitchen Lynn W. M.d, Harvard University and later which was patented is provided below.

1) Protease inhibitors 
Drugs that inhibit nucleotide by presenting themselves as competitive inhibitor of RNA elongation and protein synthesis by inhibiting Uracil, Cytocin, and Adenine neucliotides,  in order to achieve this drugs those resemble in the structure orientation to Uracil, Cytocin, and Adenine nucleotide to be chosen

Following drugs are already in existence and approved as antiviral drugs, and hold many structural similar portions in their molecule which has capability to present that portion to polymerase enzyme and bind bases in the RNA and DNA during the process of translation and protein synthesis.

One Combinition
1) Lopinavir.(LPV)
2) Ritonavir. (RTV)
3) Saquinavir (SQV) or  Cidofovir

2) Diethylcarbamazine (DEC)

These drugs to be taken in combination all together as
One dose L/R and another of C will ensure that the viral RNA synthesis is provided competitive drug molecules for competitive inhibition of RNA elongation.

Following is the detail chart with structural similarity identification for selection of drug candidate is done for Protease inhibitor category of drugs.

1) Protease inhibitors in existing class of drugs used in the treatment of HIV infection.
1) Lopinavir.(LPV)
2) Ritonavir. (RTV)
3) Cidofovir (C)

First dose in morning Combination of  1) Lopinavir.(LPV) + 2) Ritonavir (RTV)  Combination with 3) Saquinavir (SQV) or 3) Cidofovir

Diethylcarbamazine (DEC) 10 mg/kg body weight.

Kitchen Lynn W. M.d, Harvard University

Monday, March 23, 2020

Steps in prevention of Corona Virus 19 spread

How to prevent spread of Corona Virus 19 ?

Following steps will help to save lives of millions of people from getting SARS COV 19 infection.

An Alcohol or Isopropyl Alcohol based hand sanitizer may not be so effective as  that of Dilute  Solution of bleaching powder.
Prefer Dilute solution of bleaching powder allow it's contact for minimum 10 minutes.

1.Keep yourself away from a person by minimum 6 feet when you are outside of your home.

2. Currently self quarantine is very important in preparation of spread of Corona Virus 19.

3. Don't  go out of door of your home.

4. Don't touch outer surface of door of your house or  ATM key pad, lift keypad, Staircase handrail, wash your hand immediately with bleaching powder solution or hand sanitizer.

5.Hand Sanitizers may not be available in market therefore make use of bleaching powder which kills all types of Viruses at concentration of 200 ppm and more.

6.Make Chlorine solution by dissolving 4 to 5 %  bleaching powder in water and keep in your house for washing hand and outer surface of door with dilute solution of bleaching powder. Wash door bell, door foot steps corridor with bleaching powder solution every after 6  hours in day time.

7. Use nose masks when you go out : Nose masks of virus free filter pore size are not available in market. You can make it at home by stitching from keep old cloths and keep double layer of absorbent cotton inside mask now they are  now as ofgood as N95 grade.

 8.Wash hands with bleaching powder solution or hand sanitizer and sprinkle water on nostrils when you go inside your house from outside.

 9.Doctors who come in contact with patients. Swab your hands and lips with Povidone Iodine ointment , (Cipladne, Wokadine, Betadine). During handling of COVID postive patient. Swab your inner surface of nostrils with above mentioned Povidone Iodine ointment.

10.Take care of your neabour by sprinkle bleaching powder in corridor. Spread this technical information to everyone.

11. Stop spreading Corona Virus by not spiting in open make use of wash basin and run water and wash it.

12. Don't do Shake hands. Don't hug.

13. Decontaminate Cloths of  an Infected person by diping in to  of dilute solution of potassium permanganate freshly prepared solution. Or Bleaching powder allow minimum contact time of the potassium permanganate solution or bleaching powder solution for 10 minutes.

15. Large community of people in India live in slums where they use common toilet, so every 4 hours spread bleaching powder in toilets
Use nose mask while using common toilet, wash hands with bleaching powder solution. Keep plenty of bleaching powder in such common toilet place.

16. Do Yoga everyday. Yoga boosts immunity and protect from disease progression and will save your life.

Medicines to be used are recommended to doctors only. Avoid self medication.

Following Medicines to be used. In combination as combination therapy.

1. (Lopinavir +Ritonavir + Saquinavir) + Cidofovir

As viral load control measure.

To ease the lungs tissue damage, , use Chlorphenarmine maliate  or Montelukast Sodium.


Plasma therapy :
Plasma of a patient who has recovered from infection and tests negative in PCR test to be taken and used to treat a patient who is critical.
Extract plasma in respective blood group wise and keep it for treatment for same blood group patient.


Monday, March 2, 2020

Prevention and mitigation strategy for novel coronavirus infection

How to prevent corona virus infection spread.
Following techniques will provide significant protection from protecting an individual from getting COV19  infection even while living with person infected with Novel Corona Virus.
These techniques are not adapted in china and other countries hence the spread and lethal impact of the outbreak is very huge and life threatening.
In emergency situations masks and sanitisers will not be available since almost all hand sanitizer are Isopropyl alcohol or ethyl alcohol based hand Sanitisers in critical situations they will not be available to general public . 
Therefore alternative decontaminating agent which are not much discussed and hand made cloth masks too can be prepared which can prevent virus transmission.

1)Prevention: (P)

P1) Use Nose mask that contain activated charcoal bed :

How to make activated charcoal Mask ? 

Take adsorbent cotton, make a thin pad by spreading it in thin layer, air should easily pass through this, place thin layer of activated charcoal, make such two layers of activated charcoal and cotton. Take porous cloth and cut it in mask shape, keep these two pads over it, fix it by stitching or by making a bag like, or pocket in mask, and use these mask.
Before making mask use clean cloth, it should be disinfeceted by dipping inside solution of a disinfectant. 
Activated charcoal pads can be replaced in two days with fresh one.

P2) Sanitation and decontamination:
Bleaching Powder Solution :

Very effective and cheaper and widely available sanitizer is bleaching powder . It contains chlorine and it is very powerful decontaminimaging agent it is active against all sorts of Viruses and bacteria.
Make 3 To 5% solution of bleaching powder in water and use this as decontaminimaging agent or as sanitizer.
Sprinkle this solution over the articles and body part which you feel that might be potentially contaminated.
Make continuous thin film of bleaching powder solution over hand or article allow the chlorine react with contamination. It will take about 5 to 10 minutes.
Avoid contact of bleaching powder solution with eyes. Bleaching powder is widely available and is very reliable as disinfectant for virus contaminants.

Dilute solution of Potassium Permanganate:

Dilute solution of Potassium permanganate or sodium Hypochlorite solution to disinfect the flooring and the tabletops, and hand in event of potential risk of patient of corona virus is around the area.
How to make Chlorine disinfectant.
Dissolve about 200 ppm to bleaching 250 ppm powder in water and use 
Make very dilute solution of Potassium permanganate, and use it freshly to decontaminate hand, use as hand wash, higher concentration may cause skin irritation, avoid contact with eye.
Use goggles or spectacles, to protect eyes, decontaminate spectacles with the dilute solution of potassium permanganate.
To decontaminate surrounding use fogger machines or any suitable equipment that generate fumes of the chemical.
Following chemicals can be used to decontaminate infection in environment and in surrounding
  1. Spread bleaching powder in surrounding, since its widely available its best decontaminating agent.
  2. Use H2O2 (Hydrogen Peroxide) in fogger and fog the area where a potential contamination iso.
  3. Wipe the flooring and wall and handrail table top with chlorin water, prepared out of bleaching powder. Use freshly prepared chlorin water from bleaching powder.
  1. Following antimicrobial preparation can be used to decontaminate. Hands, and infected material.
a) Iodine solution, ( Cipladin, Betadine, Wokadine)
b) Mecetronium ethyl sulphate (SterIllium )
c) Silver nitrate solution freshly prepared, d) Iso propyl alcohol, e) Ethyl Alcohol, f)chlorhexidine gluconate containing solutions.

Which body parts to protect.
Avoid touching your eyes, lips and tongue, nostrils, wear spectacles.
Use nose mask containing activated charcoal as described.
As far as possible keep lips closed, avoid speaking without mask.
Protect Ears, a small cotton plug can be used which should be replaced as and when required.

P3) How to protect viral entry in to body 

 Use occlusive methods.
  1. White soft paraffine (Vassaline) is a good occlusive agent, nostrils should be covered from inside with thin layer of white soft paraffine which will protect from viral entry in to body.
  2. Silver sulfadiazine creams can also be used as occlusive barriers inside the nostrils.
  3. Creams containing chlorhexidine gluconate.
Do gargles frequently with water, if there are patients surrounding, use solution of chlorhexidine gluconate to do gargles.

Treatment and medication:
Currently there is no medicine available which is approved by FDA for treatment of novel coronavirus.
Following drugs are recommended after study of the medicinal chemistry and mode of action of the available drugs.
Following suggested medicines best suit for treating the novel corona virus infection.

1.Urgent ayurvedic remedy:
Drink 50 ml of water in which small pinch of Haldi (curcuma longa) is added do not boil after addition of haldI.
Drink this three times a day, do not exceed this.
Haldi contains potent cytotoxic curcumin, which will help in prevention of virus replication in body.

2. Drug for treatment:  (recommendation for medical professionals only)
Following drugs should be used in treatment in combination

A) Combination therapy. (Tetracycline Or Chloroquine + Proteases inhibitors+ Amantadine)
1)Tetracycline + Amantadine+ Protease inhibitor drugs.
In combination with any one drug in following list of protease inhibitors.
Protease inhibitor drugs
Protease inhibitor drugs.
atazanavir (Reyataz)
darunavir (Prezista)
fosamprenavir (Lexiva)
indinavir (Crixivan)
lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra)
nelfinavir (Viracept)
ritonavir (Norvir)
saquinavir (Invirase)
tipranavir (Aptivus)
atazanavir/cobicistat (Evotaz)
darunavir/cobicistat (Prezcobix)

B) Combination therapy with (Tetracycline Or Chloroquine+ 5 Flurouracil +Amantadine)

C) Combination Therapy with (Tetracycline +Amantadine+ Any one drug from Nonnucleoside RT inhibitors)

Nonnucleoside RT inhibitors 
1) Rilpivirine
2) Etravirine
3) Delavirdine, DLV
4) Efavirenz, EFV
5) Nevirapine, NVP

Drugs are cytotoxic hence should be taken only after prescription of a medical practitioner.

2.Serum Therapy:
Serum to be separated from infected and cured person and to be used as antibody treatment to person who has got infection recently.

Survival trick:
One can survive even after getting corona virus infection in event, person has got strong lung capability, and has got good immune power.
Yoga is found to be boosting the interlukin 2 system that improves the immunity, therefore yoga will be very important part for patient for survival.

Following Yoga therapy is very important

1)     Yogic cleansing methods
1.      Nostril wash: Yoga kriya :  Neti kriya to be done In event of exposure threat.
2.      Gastric Cleansing : Yoga kriya, Jal Dhauti. In event or after the suspected infection.

3. Boosting immunity :  

Following Yoga Kriyas are very effective in boosting immunity against viral infections, we had done experimentations on HIV patients which we could observe that the body immunity get improved with yoga kriyas.

Shri Ambika Yoga Kutir Thane can be referred for this.

1.Regularly perform : Kapalbhati.
2.Regularly perform Pranayam Kriya: Ujjayi.
3. Omkar Sadhna: Provides heat energy in body due to its unique sound vibrations, boosts immunity.
Not every patient die due to viral infection, person with lower immune power and week lungs are susceptible hence lungs capability can be improvised with yoga, Kapalbhati, and Pranayam kriyas.
Don’t do pranayama, Kapalbhati, Ujjayi kriyas in open environment, but should be done in closed room with clean environment.
Self quarantine:
In event someone is tested positive doctor should confirm with confirmation test PCR technique for presence of viral RNA.
Ensure that you do not spread contamination to others, stay at home, use nose mask and follow the advise provided above.
Do not panic one can survive and get cured from corona virus infection, your fear will bring down the immunity which might be lethal for you, therefore regular yoga practice must be followed.

How to make activated charcoal: 
Activated charocal is easily available in market in good qty.
If its not available it can be made by incernating coconut shels at temprature 900 Deg Celcius.
While temprature is coming down it is spyed with hot steam.
So one should have a steam generating equpment, after taking out the charcoal from the heater or burner, slight steam is exposed over the charcoal.

For Yoga techniques to perform see:

Following link for Information: How yoga is effective in lowering HIV viral load.

B V Waghmare (2020). Prevention and mitigation strategy for novel coronavirus infection : DOI

Sunday, November 29, 2015

HIV vaccine by step by step immunization strategy

Antibodies isolated from HIV positive individuals were successful in preventing proliferation of HIV in animal, while it was not preventing HIV in the infected individuals.

What is that difference that antibodies work against HIV in animal model, is now key towards development of a successful vaccination program against HIV.

HIV virus infect B cells which impart protection by developing immunity against any kind of infection in our body. HIV infects and destroy B cells in our blood. Also HIV change genetic material, DNA of infected human B cells and use these cells for making copies of new HIV virus.

Why vaccine is not completely developed so far because HIV changes its outer protein coat sequence, frequently so that a vaccine against protein coat of HIV is not successful, it may work in one individual while it may not work in other.

How ever there was a finding that Antibodies produced in people which are infected with HIV can protect animals from developing HIV infection and disease AIDS.
Therefore it is possible to develop a vaccine which will work in human model as well.

Team of scientists working with NIH have found a way for developing a successful vaccine against HIV, by combining step by step stimulation by combining three different proteins which will work as antigen and elicit immune response against HIV.

1) VRC01 antibody
2) eOD-GT8 60mer
3) BG505 SOSIP

Combining above proteins for immunization in step by step manner may protect human against HIV infection.

1) VRC01 are antibodies which binds with trimeric gp120 region and inhibit attachment of virus to human B cells.
2) BG505 SOSIP: Are two more similar kind of protein which binds with HIV and neutralize its ability to infect B cells.
3) eOD-GT8 60mer is a nano-particle protein, it is found that this elicit immune response where above two proteins could not, it help in stimulation and then production of precursors required to produce antibodies against HIV.

eOD-GT8 60me NanoParticle
Director of National Institute of Health United States, Dr. Francis Collins have expressed his hope for success for these strategy over his blog.


Broadly Neutralizing HIV antibodies for passive immunization

B V Waghmare (2015). HIV Vaccine heading toward success. Combination of HIV neutralizing antibodies and Nanoparticle protien eOD-GT8 60mer are good hope for getting a effective anti HIV vaccine.

Sunday, September 7, 2014

Protein that protect from TB infection developing in to lung infection

Biomarker that will help predict if a person will develop fetal lung disease associated with TB infection and can be used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

Every individual who encounter Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection do not develop an active form of TB, such individuals may test positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection or antibody test.

A protein interleukin-32 is found in such individuals which protect them from developing TB infection into an active form of TB or fetal lung disease. Interleukin-32 help immune cells of body to kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria in presence of Vitamin D. Vitamin D is very important for protecting individual from developing active form of TB, in presence of Vitamin D protein interleukin-32 induce killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Presences of biomarker interleukin-32 in patients with latent TB can be used to predict if such patients will develop active form of TB or never. Synthetic Interleukin-32 can be used to develop pharmaceutical substance to treat TB patients with deficiency of interleukin-32 as well.

Source :

Last updated: 07-Sep -2014

B V Waghmare (2014). Interlukin 32 biomarker that will predict relapse of tuberculosis infection and will be used in treatment of TB