Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Monday, October 25, 2010

Information about HIV virus Information on AIDS , how HIV virus infects human , how HIV virus reproduces in number (Replication of HIV virus)

Information on HIV virus, information about AIDS (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome)how HIV virus infects human , how HIV virus reproduces in number (Replication of HIV virus) AIDS symptoms  

There are two species of HIV virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and as both LAV and HTLV-III (Human T-Lymphocytic virus Type iii ). It is considered more virulent and more infective, it is presently the major cause of HIV infections worldwide.

HIV-2 posses lower infectivity than compared to HIV-1 .

Structure of HIV virus
HIV virus is spherical in structure , measuring about 120 nm,It consist of two copies of RNA enclosed in to a capcid along with its enzyme system and proteins, the capsid is further surrounded by a lipid membrane made of P17 proteins.This inturn is surrounded by two layers phospholipids fatty molecules called as viral envelop.
There are about 70 protrusions of protiens from HIV virus envelop, these protrusions consists a tip called as cap and the stem which holds cap firmly placed on viral envelop.
Cap is made from glycoprotein (gp) 120 and stem is made from glycoprotein (gp) 41.These protiens help in attaching virus over t-lymphocytic cells and then injecting its RNA , in to human T lymphocytic cell .

Entry of HIV virus in  to cell
HIV virus gain entry in to human cells which are responsible for protecting human body from any form of incoming infection, that is by infecting CD4 T cells and macrophages
The process of gaining entry in to these cells involves adsorption of hiv virus over T cells surface receptor CD4 receptors this process involves adsorption of HIV viral glycoproteins over of lymphocytes , then HIV virus fuses with host cell by fusing its viral envelop with the human cell membrane and then HIV virus releases capsid into the lymphocytic cells.

In first step of HIV virus attachment over human lymphocytic cells , involves formation of bonding with viral protein arms called gp160 proteins with CD4 receptor and chemokine receptors of human lymphocytic cells.
At the same time gp120 proteins arm over HIV virus binds to integrin receptors which are a type of receptors over human cell that regulate attachment of cells with body tissue to facilitate cellular process , these receptors facilitate spreading of cell over the attaching surface , in this case it is HIV virus.

After attachment of gp120 protein arm of HIV virus , lymphocyte cell surface is aligned in proper orientation , so that the N terminal gp 41 protein of HIV virus easily penetrate in to human lymphocytic cell , this interaction or gp41 HIV viral protien facilitate in fusion of HIV viral capcid with human lyphocytic cells.
After fusion of HIV viral capcid , with human lymphocytic cell , HIV viral enzyme systems and HIV viral genetic material that is RNA , is released in to human cell cytoplasm.

While our body cells normal metabolic function RNA of this HIV virus is transcribed in to a single stranded DNA called as cDNA , which in tern is transcribed in to double stranded DNA that is now able to guide human host cell to synthesize HIV viral RNA and its proteins and enzymes which are then organized in to a new HIV virus , this process is called assembly and then this newly formed virus are released in to blood destroying the infected cell.

For this HIV DNA thus formed gets incorporated in to human DNA, and when ever human cell DNA functions normally to synthesize required proteins for human body function , it also synthesize new HIV viral particles by producing HIV viral proteins , RNA and enzyme system.

HIV virus also infect dendritic cells which are present in inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines, and blood, and skin their main role is to capture an antigen and take it to lymph node and present this antigen to lymphocytic cells, which in tern result in development of immunity against the antigen.
Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) found in neurons prevents HIV virus from infecting neurons

Replication and transcription.
Human Imuno deficiency virus knows as HIV virus belongs to the genus Lentivirus, and Family Retroviridae.
HIV virus (Family Retroviridae) is a RNA virus, as against other types of virus which contains DNA .For process of reproduction of virus , it is required that it pass on its genetic information from parent virus to new virus . DNA contains genes, and gens are able to transfer its genetic information from parent to progeny, but HIV contains RNA it stores all genetic information over these RNA.

Hence to transfer its own genetic information from parent virus to new virus, RNA of HIV Virus develops a copy of a DNA, This process is known as reverse transcription, and it is facilitated by enzyme reverse transcriptase, the reverse transcription process and enzyme reverse transcriptase is so called reverse as the process is just reverse process compared to DNA virus, where a genetic information is transcribed from DNA throgh RNA.

The newly formed single stranded copy of DNA makes its complementary copy and forms a double stranded DNA, with the help of enzymes DNA polymerase.

Now this DNA copy of HIV virus gets incorporated in to human DNA of T-Lymphocytes, and when ever these T-Lymphocytes carry out the process of protein synthesis for them selves, they are also making the HIV virus proteins and RNA as that of parent HIV virus as the DNA of infected T-Lymphocytes contains DNA copy formed by HIV virus in the process of reverse transcription.
The enzyme responsible for integration of DNA copy formed by HIV virus in to human DNA of T-Lymphocytes are intercalase and integrase.

HIV virus is infects human T-Cells which are known to impart immunity and protect human body from any sort of incoming infection, after infection with HIV virus, these cells count lowers down to such an extent that, the general microbial flora which all humans do harbor in their body, and is not harmful otherwise, becomes harmful and turns to be pathogenic (Harmful). This is the main cause which develops serious and life threatening complications in HIV virus infected individuals, thus develops in to the disease known as AIDS (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome).

Who discovered HIV virus and tests for diagnosis of HIV infection?

HIV virus AIDS history. In 1981 AIDS disease was first identified, as a disease that is life threatening.

Dr Gallo and Montagnier discovered virus that causes AIDS as HIVvirus.
In 1983 HIV virus was first grown by Dr Gallo and Montagnier in vitro , in a laboratory
In 1985 the first commercial test to detect HIV virus was developed.

Dr Robert C. Gallo. Who worked for National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute, USA, till 1996 as head of Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, he is now a director of  The Institute of Human Virology. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Dr Robert C. Gallo also discovered retroviruses HTLV -1 and HTLV-11 virus that causes cancers , initially it was said that HTLV virus was responsible for AIDS later it was demonstrated by Dr Gallo that (Human immune deficiency virus) HIV virus is responsible for AIDS , this discovery was very important point in developing the test for diagnosis for HIV infection, diagnosis test was also been developed by Dr Robert C. Gallo.

In 1976 Dr Robert C. Gallo and his colleagues discovered Interleukin-2, a growth regulating substance which is now is used in treatment of certain therapy in some cancer.

Dr Gallo is a great human being who has served for wellbeing of mankind, decided to become a researcher in medicine after he lost his 8 year old sister to cancer when he was a young boy.

There is much more information on HIV virus new findings available on this blog.
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Last updated:25-Oct-2010

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