Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Saturday, February 16, 2008



What is HIV?

HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS.

While many viruses can be controlled by the immune system, HIV targets and infects the same immune system cells that are supposed to protect us from illnesses. These are a type of white blood cell called CD4 cells.

HIV takes over CD4 cells and turns them into virus factories that produce thousands of viral copies. As the virus grows, it damages or kills CD4 cells, weakening the immune system.

What is AIDS?AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. AIDS is the most advanced stage of HIV infection.

HIV causes AIDS by attacking the immune system’s soldiers – the CD4 cells. When the immune system loses too many CD4 cells, you are less able to fight off infection and can develop serious, often deadly, infections. These are called opportunistic infections (OIs) because they take advantage of the body's weakened defenses.

When someone dies of AIDS, it is usually opportunistic infections or other long-term effects of HIV infection that cause death. AIDS refers to the body’s immune-compromised state that can no longer stop OIs from developing and becoming so deadly.

What is the Difference Between HIV and AIDS?You don't have AIDS as soon as you are infected with HIV. You can be HIV+ for many years with no signs of disease, or only mild-to-moderate symptoms. But without treatment, HIV will eventually wear down the immune system in most people to the point that they develop more serious OIs.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) USA defines someone as having AIDS if he or she is HIV+ and meets one or both of these conditions:
Has had at least one of 21 AIDS-defining opportunistic infections Has had a CD4 cell count (T-cell count) of 200 cells or less (a normal CD4 count varies by laboratory, but usually is in the 600 to 1,500 range)
How Do I Know if I Have HIV?Most people can not tell that they have been exposed or infected. It can take up to 12 weeks for an HIV test to come back positive. However most people respond much faster. Within two to four weeks of exposure to HIV, you might have flu-like symptoms such as fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, or rash.

The only way to know for sure if you are infected is take an HIV test. If you are infected, your immune system will make antibodies to fight the virus. The HIV test looks for these antibodies. If you have them in your blood, it means that you have HIV infection.

Do I Need to Get Tested for HIV?The CDC estimates that more than 25% of HIV+ people are unaware of their HIV status. Many of these people look and feel healthy and do not think they are at risk. But the truth is that anyone of any age, gender, race, sexual orientation, or social or economic class can become infected. It is your actions (or the actions taken against you), that put you at risk. You should be tested if:
You have had vaginal, anal, or oral sex without a condom You have shared needles or syringes to inject drugs (including steroids or hormones) You are uncertain of your partner’s status or your partner is HIV+ You are pregnant or are considering becoming pregnant You have ever been diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease You have hepatitis C
Why Should I Get Tested?If you test HIV+ there are effective medications to help you stay well. But you cannot get the health care and treatment you need if you do not know your HIV status. Being unaware of your status also makes it more likely to unknowingly pass HIV to others.

If you test HIV- you can take steps to stay that way. You can also spare yourself unnecessary worrying.

What Tests are Available?The most common test for HIV is the antibody test (called ELISA). It can be done on blood, saliva, or urine. According to the CDC, it is more than 99% accurate. Results are generally available within two weeks. (There is a rapid ELISA test that gives results in less than half an hour.)

A positive result means your body has developed antibodies for HIV, so you are infected with the virus. To be completely certain, positive results are confirmed with a more sensitive test called the Western blot.

A negative result means your body has not developed antibodies and are probably not infected. To get truly accurate results, it's necessary to wait three to six months after your last possible exposure to the virus before being tested. That is because the immune system can take anywhere from three to twelve weeks to make antibodies. In this "window period," someone may get an unclear result or a false negative.
It is a T -lymphocytic RNA Virus which is classified as Retrovirus ,
it uses RNA to as its source for genetic information,
It do not contain its own DNA,where as it uses RNA for first forming a (DNA copy ) for its multiplication with help of reverse transcriptase enzyme, after it gets entry in hosts cell this is called reverse transcription (RNA TO DNA AND TO PROTEIN SYSNTHESIS). The process of normal cell DNA multiplication is called trancription(DNA TO RNA AND TO PROTEIN SYSNTHESIS). as protien syntesis and multiplication is a process only DNA can bring about.virus intercalatesdefollt also synthesizes Virus RNA ,and Virus proteins ,and these Viral RNA and proteins assemble together to form a new virus (Process of virus multiplication).
The enzyme which help virus to Integrate its (DNA copy ) in Human DNA is Intercalase ,
for this (DNA copy ) to get proper place in Human DNA a enzyme , Ligaase , which cuts Human DNA at correct required Point . This point Varies in Person to person ,it will be different in different individuals and hence a mutation occurs in Virus DNA ,and newly Virus thus formed is different from original, which is mutation.These are the enzyme which has made this virus very deadly,
as it moves from one human to other , its genetic code for protein amino acid sequence changes ,
and it makes difficult to establish a identity from one host to other ,consider it as a mutation from one virus to other.
that is the reason why we are not able to produce vaccine for this.
as there are challenges there are solutions,
Virus Has a unique way of infecting host cell,
that is through CD4 RECEPTOR over T -LYMPHOCITC CELLS (a main part of human body to provide immunity against any sort of infection)
hence method of attachment to cd4 receptor is same , hence we can possibly identify the sequence of amino acid in the protein coat over counter part on HIV virus which attaches to CD4 RECEPTOR,
This protein sequence can enable us to develop a part of protein of virus and we can use this as a VACCINE ,
HOW IS THE CHEMOTHERAPY DESIGNED ?HIV VIRUS contains RNA ,and our body cells contain DNA,
And only key difference in both, is a Nucleotide Thiamine trineuclio phospahte , if we are able to stop , usage of this nucleotide by virus , eventually virus growth of virus as RNA for next virus is not synthesized there by stoping growing and will stop killing our body difence mechanism
This is what is done by available medicines like azidothymidine,
same way virus multiplication can be hampered by using Uracil anti metabolite ,
where you can incorporate -N=NH moiety like in zudovudine and it can survive as DNA elongation step inhibitor.
it may be equally harmful to Patients body beyond some extent.
Hence combination Therapy ,which will help take care of infective process of virus at all stages of infection has to be blended together,
Drugs should be combined to,
1.Genetically engineered CD4:-
Here we can Design CD4 receptor in vitro (genetic engenerring)
and these engineered receptor will get targeted by virus and there by make it loss its RNA in serum before entry in host cell.
2. drugs which inhibit attachment :-
eg:- amantadine
3. drugs which will hamper intigartion of PRO VIRUS TO HUMAN DNA .
4. Reverse transcriptasae inhibitors
(virus synthesizes its DNA from RNA (THIS IS CALLED REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION) in host cell after geting in host cell
5.Immunoglobulines :-
6:- Poly -Poly units:-
eg :- poly -ala.(POLY ALANINE)
inhibits reverse transcription,And intigrasae.
if combined with azt will give good result.
For detailed learning you can see the below link.
This website provides you information on HIV,AIDS on following topics
HIV, AIDS, all associated with,chronic illness, treatment protocols,seropositive,therapy, psychotherapy,couples therapy,marital therapy,psychology,HIV & AIDS Current Research,Treatments, & Resources
What are the early symptoms or signs of HIV and AIDS,HIV Transmission,HIV Information,HIV Symptoms,HIV Signs,HIV Prevention,HIV Medicine,HIV vaccine,HIV treatment,HIV infection,AIDS symptoms,AIDS virus,Diarrhea,Flu,Illness,Weakness,Fever,Sex,Needles,Syringes,Condom,Pregnancy,immune system,health,test,antibody,Testing,Query,Questions Related to hiv AIDS

Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms

Information about HIV Virus AIDS symptoms

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Poly proteins and HIV virus


Last updated: 16-Feb-2008

1 comment:

Anonymous said...

This is a best article on HIV AIDS,