Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Thursday, October 28, 2010

Information about HIV virus, information about AIDS (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome)how HIV virus infects human , how HIV virus reproduces in number (Replication of HIV virus) AIDS symptoms

Information on HIV virus, information about AIDS Symptom (Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome) how HIV virus infects human , how HIV virus reproduces in number (Replication of HIV virus) HIV infection symptoms  

Give information about HIV virus types
There are two species of HIV virus: HIV-1 and HIV-2.
HIV-1 is the virus that was initially discovered and as both LAV and HTLV-III (Human T-Lymphocytic virus Type iii ). It is considered more virulent and more infective, it is presently the major cause of HIV infections worldwide.

HIV-2 posses lower infectivity than compared to HIV-1 .

Give Brife information on HIV virus morphology( structure)
Structure of HIV virus
HIV virus is spherical in structure , measuring about 120 nm,It consist of two copies of RNA enclosed in to a capcid along with its enzyme system and proteins, the capsid is further surrounded by a lipid membrane made of P17 proteins.This inturn is surrounded by two layers phospholipids fatty molecules called as viral envelop.
There are about 70 protrusions of protiens from HIV virus envelop, these protrusions consists a tip called as cap and the stem which holds cap firmly placed on viral envelop.
Cap is made from glycoprotein (gp) 120 and stem is made from glycoprotein (gp) 41.These protiens help in attaching virus over t-lymphocytic cells and then injecting its RNA , in to human T lymphocytic cell .

Give Brife Information about Process of HIV virus infection 
Entry of HIV virus in  to cell
HIV virus gain entry in to human cells which are responsible for protecting human body from any form of incoming infection, that is by infecting CD4 T cells and macrophages
The process of gaining entry in to these cells involves adsorption of HIV virus over T cells surface receptor CD4 receptors this process involves adsorption of HIV viral glycoproteins over of lymphocytes , then HIV virus fuses with host cell by fusing its viral envelop with the human cell membrane and then HIV virus releases capsid into the lymphocytic cells.

In first step of HIV virus attachment over human lymphocytic cells , involves formation of bonding with viral protein arms called gp160 proteins with CD4 receptor and chemokine receptors of human lymphocytic cells.
At the same time gp120 proteins arm over HIV virus binds to integrin receptors which are a type of receptors over human cell that regulate attachment of cells with body tissue to facilitate cellular process , these receptors facilitate spreading of cell over the attaching surface , in this case it is HIV virus.

After attachment of gp120 protein arm of HIV virus , lymphocyte cell surface is aligned in proper orientation , so that the N terminal gp 41 protein of HIV virus easily penetrate in to human lymphocytic cell , this interaction or gp41 HIV viral protien facilitate in fusion of HIV viral capcid with human lyphocytic cells.
After fusion of HIV viral capcid , with human lymphocytic cell , HIV viral enzyme systems and HIV viral genetic material that is RNA , is released in to human cell cytoplasm.

While our body cells normal metabolic function RNA of this HIV virus is transcribed in to a single stranded DNA called as cDNA , which in tern is transcribed in to double stranded DNA that is now able to guide human host cell to synthesize HIV viral RNA and its proteins and enzymes which are then organized in to a new HIV virus , this process is called assembly and then this newly formed virus are released in to blood destroying the infected cell.

For this HIV DNA thus formed gets incorporated in to human DNA, and when ever human cell DNA functions normally to synthesize required proteins for human body function , it also synthesize new HIV viral particles by producing HIV viral proteins , RNA and enzyme system.

HIV virus also infect dendritic cells which are present in inner lining of the nose, lungs, stomach and intestines, and blood, and skin their main role is to capture an antigen and take it to lymph node and present this antigen to lymphocytic cells, which in tern result in development of immunity against the antigen.
Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta-1 (FEZ1) found in neurons prevents HIV virus from infecting neurons

Replication and transcription.
Human Imuno deficiency virus knows as HIV virus belongs to the genus Lentivirus, and Family Retroviridae.
HIV virus (Family Retroviridae) is a RNA virus, as against other types of virus which contains DNA .For process of reproduction of virus , it is required that it pass on its genetic information from parent virus to new virus . DNA contains genes, and gens are able to transfer its genetic information from parent to progeny, but HIV contains RNA it stores all genetic information over these RNA.

Hence to transfer its own genetic information from parent virus to new virus, RNA of HIV Virus develops a copy of a DNA, This process is known as reverse transcription, and it is facilitated by enzyme reverse transcriptase, the reverse transcription process and enzyme reverse transcriptase is so called reverse as the process is just reverse process compared to DNA virus, where a genetic information is transcribed from DNA through RNA.

The newly formed single stranded copy of DNA makes its complementary copy and forms a double stranded DNA, with the help of enzymes DNA polymerase.

Now this DNA copy of HIV virus gets incorporated in to human DNA of T-Lymphocytes, and when ever these T-Lymphocytes carry out the process of protein synthesis for them selves, they are also making the HIV virus proteins and RNA as that of parent HIV virus as the DNA of infected T-Lymphocytes contains DNA copy formed by HIV virus in the process of reverse transcription.
The enzyme responsible for integration of DNA copy formed by HIV virus in to human DNA of T-Lymphocytes are intercalase and integrase.

What is AIDS?
HIV virus is infects human T-Cells which are known to impart immunity and protect human body from any sort of incoming infection, after infection with HIV virus, these cells count lowers down to such an extent that, the general microbial flora which all humans do harbor in their body, and is not harmful otherwise, becomes harmful and turns to be pathogenic (Harmful). This is the main cause which develops serious and life threatening complications in HIV virus infected individuals, thus develops in to the disease known as AIDS (Acquired immune deficiency syndrome).

When do AIDS disease occurs?
When a person is infected with HIV virus, there are chances of developing disease AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This disease is developed as a result of decline in CD4 cell count (below 200 / µL) as HIV virus destroys all of CD4 cells in our body.
Chances of development of AIDS disease can be minimized by starting early anti retroviral drug therapy , early treatment for HIV infection can save life of person to considerable amount of time there are peoples living for more that 15 years and more with HIV positive status , with anti retroviral drug therapy.

Which are early symptoms of HIV virus infection ?

After encountering HIV virus, for how many days HIV is not detected in Tests?

How much time it takes to get detected HIV positive after an exposure to HIV virus?

A test for HIV will not get detected positive immediately after an exposure , if a person has got exposure to HIV then it may take about two to twelve weeks to show positive results, it may also take about six months to get detected as HIV positive in the tests.

If a person is exposed to HIV virus by any way , it is better to start antiretroviral drug therapy immediately.

Also if one tests late after exposure to HIV virus and gets detected as HIV positive then the antiretroviral drugs are found less effective, hence one should start taking drugs early or immediately after exposure after consultation with your physician.

Symptoms of HIV infection , AIDS Symptoms.
The symptoms of AIDS are basically outcome of poor immune , or poor resistance to fight any incoming infection in to affected body , in individuals with healthy immune systems who are not infected their body is able to resist kill any incoming infectious bacteria and viruses.
In almost cases AIDS symptoms are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites those are normally are in abundance around human body and normal human body controls
Opportunistic infections are most common in individuals affected with AIDS.Opportunistic infections affect almost every organ human body.
Individual with AIDS also have an increased risk of developing various disease like Kaposi's sarcoma, and lymphomas.

Individuals affected with AIDS shows systemic symptoms of infection as follows
Fevers, sweating particularly at night, swollen glands, chills, weakness, and weight loss.
Opportunistic infections that an AIDS patients may develop is the factor of kind of exposure to an infection.
Pulmonary infections
Pulmonary infections occur when the CD4 count is less than 200 cells per µL of blood.
Pneumocystis pneumonia is relatively rare in healthy, immunocompetent people, but common among HIV-infected individuals. It is caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii.
(TB) is a unique symptom of AIDS among the peoples infectected with HIV as TB bacteria is transmissible to immunocompetent people through the respiratory route, early-stage HIV dignosis is and strting a treatment is most important factor to avoid deths due to TB. TB is preventable with drug therapy .
Care should be taken in drug therapy so that multidrug resistance do not occure.
Tuberculosis with other HIV co-infection (TB/HIV) is one of the major problem.
Early-stage HIV infection (CD4 count >300 cells per µL), TB presents as a pulmonary disease.
and in advanced HIV infection, TB presents with extrapulmonary (systemic) disease a common feature. Symptoms are usually constitutional and symptoms are not localized to one particular site, also affects bone marrow, bone, urinary and gastrointestinal tracts, liver, regional lymph nodes, and the central nervous system
Gastrointestinal infections
Esophagitis , inflammation of lining of the lower side of the esophagus (gullet or swallowing tube leading to the stomach). In HIV infected peoples, Gastrointestinal infections are normally due to fungal (candidiasis) or viral (herpes simplex-1 or cytomegalovirus) infections. In rare cases, it could be due to mycobacteria.
chronic diarrhea in HIV infection is due to many possible causes, including common bacteria (Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria or Campylobacter) and parasite infestetion; and uncommon opportunistic infections such as cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and viruses,astrovirus, adenovirus, rotavirus and cytomegalovirus, (the latter as a course of colitis).
Diarrhea can be one of side effect of several drugs used to treat HIV infection, a side effect of antibiotics used to treat bacterial causes of diarrhea, or it may simply accompany HIV infection, particularly during primary HIV infection. It may also be (common for Clostridium difficile). In the later stages of HIV infection, diarrhea is thought to be a reflection of changes in the way the intestinal tract absorbs nutrients, and may be an important component of HIV-related weigh loss or muscle wash out.

Neurological and psychiatric considerations
HIV infection lead to a variety of neuropsychiatric sequelae, by infection of the nervous system by organisms which were once not harful, it may be a direct consequence of the illness.

Toxoplasma encephalitis

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasite Toxoplasma gondii; it infects brain, resulting in to toxoplasma encephalitis, it also infect and cause disease in the eyes and lungs.
Cryptococcal meningitis is an infection of the meninx (the membrane covering the brain and spinal cord) by the fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. It causes fevers, headache, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting. individulas may also develop seizures and confusion.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease, in which the gradual destruction of the myelin sheath covering the axons of nerve cells impairs the transmission of nerve impulses. It is caused by a virus called JC virus which occurs in 70% of the population in latent form, causing disease only when the immune system has been severely weakened, as is the case for AIDS patients.

AIDS dementia complex (ADC) is a metabolic encephalopathy induced by HIV infection . HIV infected brain macrophages and microglia cells are infected by HIV virus and secrete neurotoxins which are of both host as well as viral origin. Specific neurological impairments are manifested by cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities that occur after years of HIV infection and are because of low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads.
AIDS related mania is sometimes seen in patients with advanced HIV illness; it presents with more irritability and cognitive impairment and less euphoria than a manic episode associated with true bipolar disorder. Unlike the latter condition, it may have a more chronic course. This symptom is can be avoided if one takes proper medication .
Tumors and malignancies
Individuals infected with HIV virus show substantially increased incidence of several tumors and malignancies.
With todyas available new antiaids drugs and medicines which are so promising that if a patient is taking proper medication and his CD 4 count is not allowed to drop down , then all above symptoms are well controlled and life of HIV infected persone is extended to considerable value,

In contries where HAART is extensively used to treat AIDS, the incidence of many AIDS-related malignancies and symptoms has decreased.

Other infections
Opportunistic infection with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare and cytomegalovirus (CMV).
CMV causes colitis, and CMV retinitis may cause blindness.
Penicilliosis caused by Penicillium marneffei is the third most common opportunistic infection (after extrapulmonary tuberculosis and cryptococcosis) in HIV-positive individuals .

Infection of Parvovirus B19 in AIDS patients , results in to anemia, this is difficult to distinguish from the side effects of antiAIDS drugs used to treat AIDS and HIV virus infection.

There is no cure for AIDS till today but continuous efforts are going on to develop a life saving treatment for AIDS. Also currently available antiretroviral drugs are very effective, a continuous monitoring of the CD4 count and early starting of medication ie. starting taking drugs as soon as one is found to be HIV positive, medicines taken on time without break definitely help to prevent the development of AIDS disease and its symptoms, remember HIV infection as such is not fatal but the symptoms that it develops are life threatening so starting medication early help a patient to live a quality life , as it lowers the rate of  multiplication of HIV virus and prevent CD4 cell count going further below , and a person affected with HIV can live a good quality life.

There are very great hopes from gene therapy and stem cell therapy for HIV infection .
Drugs are likely to develop resistance , hence if there is a facility available then performing HIV drug Resistance Assay's help to select most effective drug for treatment.

It is good shair experience with friends and peoples from help groups , this reduces stress and related anxiety.

There is hope?
Yes there is hope for life !There are drugs now available , by taking these medicines on time without break one can live quality and longer life. May be till that time a life saving treatment is discovered and one get that facility .

Medicine those are available nowadays are able to reduce viral load in your body and prevent HIV virus from building up in your body. It is true that even after taking these medicine one carries virus in to his or her body , hence they are carrier of virus and they can give HIV virus infection.Individual with HIV infection is called HIV positive as the diagnostic test results are called positive if an individual is found to be infected with HIV virus.

Individual with HIV infection may require to take three or more different medicines daily.

Individual with HIV infection must take all given medicines regularly every day.

One should not stop taking medicines without talking to doctor.

Stopping taking medicine even for a day make result in to untoward effect that may result in to deterioration (weakening) of health of a HIV positive individual.

Which are the currently available medicines for treating HIV infection ? What is HAART ?
There are following class of drugs available so far for treatment of HIV infection.
HAART is made up of different kinds of drugs comprising from following categories:

1. Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)
2. Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
3. Protease Inhibitors
4. Fusion Inhibitors
5. Integrase Inhibitors
6. Entry Inhibitors
7. Combination Drugs

Here is the detailed list of drugs which are approved by US FDA.
These drugs are mentioned here just for the sec of education and purely for information purpose only , drugs are referred here for reference purpose only for research institutes ,universities and research scientists.

One should not take any drug without consulting his or her doctor , they (doctors) prescribe drugs keeping in view all the side effects and benefits of a drug if there are more harmful side effects which may prove fatal to a patient than actual benefit then such drugs are avoided , hence one should listen and follow doctors instruction regarding medication.

 First Brand name is given and in the bracket generic name of the drug with its abbrivation is provided)
*Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs)  ---
Combivir (Lamivudine and Zidovudine)
Emtriva (Emtricitabine FTC)
Epivir (Lamivudine 3TC)
Epzicom (Abacavir and Lamivudine)
Hivid (Zalcitabine Dideoxycytidine ddC )
Retrovir (Zidovudine AZT or Azidothymidine, ZDV)
Trizivir (Abacavir, Zidovudine and Lamivudine)
Truvada (Tenofovir Disoproxil and Emtricitabine )
Videx (Didanosine , ddl, Dideoxyinosine)
Videx EC (Enteric Coated Didanosine)
Viread (Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate, TDF )
Zerit (Stavudine d4T)
Ziagen (Abacavir Sulfate, ABC)

*Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs)
Intelence (Etravirine)
Rescriptor (Delavirdine DLV)
Sustiva (Efavirenz)
Viramune (Nevirapine)

*Protease Inhibitors
Agenerase (Amprenavir APV)
Aptivus (Tipranavir TPV)
Crixivan (Indinavir IDV, MK-639)
Fortovase (Saquinavir (no longer marketed))
Invirase (Saquinavir Mesylate SQV)
Kaletra (Lopinavir and Ritonavir LPV/RTV)
Lexiva (Fosamprenavir Calcium FOS-APV )
Norvir (Ritonavir RTV)
Prezista (Darunavir)
Reyataz (Atazanavir Sulfate ATV)
Viracept (Nelfinavir Mesylate NFV)

*Fusion Inhibitors
Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide T-20 )This medicine is a shot.

*Multi-Class Combination Drugs
Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine,and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate)

*Integrase Inhibitors
Isentress (Raltegravir)

*Entry Inhibitors
Selzentry (Maraviroc)

It is required to form a combination of drugs from almost all class of drugs listed above so that the virus multiplication and count is brought under control.
This is called Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. (HAART)

Why HAART regimen of drugs is given ?

HIV virus is known to develop resistance to drugs very fast, so that the HIV virus can grow even after taking that a drug for which HIV virus developed resistance.Hence even if one class of drug develops resistance HIV virus is likely to be stopped from further growth by other class of drug and so on , but there are certain limitations of every class of drugs so that they are able to control multiplication of HIV virus till some steps but not at all steps .

Hence combining all drugs those drugs which are acting at different levels in life cycle of HIV virus are formed to make a combination that is able to stop HIV virus from growth at all possible steps in HIV virus life cycle.

Hence HAART is the main therapy today available for treatment for HIV infection.

Till today there is no vaccine available for treatment of HIV infection, until today vaccines developed against HIV virus could not prove its beneficial effects in clinical trials.

Which foods a HIV positive individual should eat and which food HIV positive should avoid eating.
A HIV positive individual can eat all sorts of food.
It is found that in some individuals beta-carotine increased the cd4 receptor cells count , this requires to be proved in a clinical trial , but still if one eats carot in his or her meal it will be bit healthear.
Avoid eating garlic in any form in cooked food or as a suppliment , as it is known to interact with certain anti AIDS drugs , specialy protease inhibitors.

Avoid smoking and eating or chewing tobacoo , as this may develop drug resistance or increased hepatic metabolism of your drug rendering a drug no or less effective.

Why drugs available against HIV are not effective to the level which can save life?
Why there is no vaccines against AIDS is developed yet?

HIV virus multiplies with a great speed, and that is one of the reason that , there occurs lot of changes in genetic material of HIV virus that is a change in gene occurs which is called as mutation , after a mutation , the virus in which mutation takes place gives rise to a different virus that has very different genetic combination .
This is one of reason that HIV virus develops Drug Resistance against a particular drug .
That means a drug which was active against the HIV virus is not so active now against newly aroused HIV virus after mutation.
It is also likely that one drug may lead to development for resistance to other drug in the same class of drug or if a drug has same mechanism of action, then a resistance developed for one may cause a resistance to other drug too, this phenomenon is known as cross-resistance.
The similar phenomenon occurs in other microorganisms typically with development of antibiotic assay but they are very much controllable with other drugs.
Today a drug resistance is one of a biggest challenge in front of doctors treating HIV infection.
Now days some drug resistance assays are also available, which finds out the susceptibility of HIV virus present in some ones body for developing a drug resistance with genotypic and phenotypic analysis.
There are number of efforts going on to develop a vaccine against HIV virus but because of the frequent changes in genetic material , HIV virus develops capability to survive even after vaccination with vaccines so far developed, Still there are some encouraging results observed with neutralizing antibodies against HIV virus, which can be used concomitantly with chemotherapy.

What we should do to survive from HIV virus.
We always say over our blog that “its very easy to stay away from getting HIV infection, than providing some one a treatment for HIV infection, and choice is completely yours”! And it will save not only your life but it will save your family”!
It is a simple thing to stay away from HIV virus by adapting simple precautionary measures.
Avoid unprotected sex with unknown individual.
Show courage to say NO! for sex with unknown person. And save your and your families life, it is completely in your hand. One should always keep in mind that AIDS is a biggest killer today world wide, it do not understand boundaries of any nation.

Here we have given details of how HIV virus infection occurs and what are precautionary measures one should adopt to stay away from getting HIV infection, It is also important that one should teach his or her siblings and relatives and friends to adapt precautionary measures to

Who discovered HIV virus and tests for diagnosis of HIV infection?

HIV virus AIDS history. In 1981 AIDS disease was first identified, as a disease that is life threatening.

Dr Gallo and Montagnier discovered virus that causes AIDS as HIVvirus.
In 1983 HIV virus was first grown by Dr Gallo and Montagnier in vitro , in a laboratory
In 1985 the first commercial test to detect HIV virus was developed.

Dr Robert C. Gallo. Who worked for National Institutes of Health's National Cancer Institute, USA, till 1996 as head of Laboratory of Tumor Cell Biology, he is now a director of  The Institute of Human Virology. University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore

Dr Robert C. Gallo also discovered retroviruses HTLV -1 and HTLV-11 virus that causes cancers , initially it was said that HTLV virus was responsible for AIDS later it was demonstrated by Dr Gallo that (Human immune deficiency virus) HIV virus is responsible for AIDS , this discovery was very important point in developing the test for diagnosis for HIV infection, diagnosis test was also been developed by Dr Robert C. Gallo.

In 1976 Dr Robert C. Gallo and his colleagues discovered Interleukin-2, a growth regulating substance which is now is used in treatment of certain therapy in some cancer.

Dr Gallo is a great human being who has served for well being of mankind, decided to become a researcher in medicine after he lost his 8 year old sister to cancer when he was a young boy.

Mother to child HIV virus transmission

If a mother is HIV positive then there are high chances that her baby too gets HIV virus infection, most often HIV infection is passed on from mother to child during delivery, when baby comes in contact with mother’s blood, other route for infection is breast feeding. HIV virus also get transmitted from mother to her child through breast milk .Hence following precautions are required to take.
1.HARAT regimen of drug during pregnancy to reduce HIV virus load.
2.Avoiding breast feeding .(Its an critical issue as mothers milk too is essential) some alternate infant feed formulas should be tried , or other nursing mothers milk should be provided to infant.)
3.New born infants too are given antiretroviral drug treatments.

There is much more information on HIV virus new findings available on this blog.
Here are given details about symptoms of AIDS , all new symptoms of AIDS and HIV virus infection are updated.

Drug development against HIV virus , Drug Resistance assay's and analysis during drug development

Here is the latest development on treatment for HIV and AIDS

Basic information about HIV and AIDS ==>


This website provideds complete information about hiv virus , hiv infection , early hiv symptoms , hiv treatment,hiv test and hiv testing centers, aids symptoms, symptoms of hiv immideately after infection.


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Last updated 28-Oct-2010

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