Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Tuesday, May 31, 2011

New nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors for treating patients who never recived any anti retroviral drug before

New drug is now available for HIV positive patients who have never taken any treatment.

There is a new drug development in the treatment of HIV positive individual, now a new drug is approved by US food and drugs administration , the new drug is a non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, which can be used to lower the higher HIV 1 viral load in blood of HIV positive individuals which never received any anti retroviral treatment before, as the task is a challenging one the newly available drug will be able to provide better tratement option in such cases along with HAART.

Brand name of this drug is Edurant which contains rilpivirine, Raritan, N.J-based Tibotec Therapeutics, a division of Centocor Ortho Biotech Inc has developed this drug.

Rilpivirine
The drug molecule rilpivirine is a diarylpyrimidine derivative which resembles the pyrymidine nucleotides in complementroy DNA and tymine nucleotide in RNA in HIV virus  which, owing to its similarity to the chemical resemblance to pryamidine nucleotides, It act by inhibiting HIV virus replication, by blocking enzyme reverse transcriptase. Rilpivirine drug molecule also exhibit some level of conformational isomerism which make this drug molecule to bind with pryrimidine nucleosides strongly preventing them from replication, making this drug molecule active even in higher HIV viral load conditions.

Nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs have therapeutic index to a lower side (moderate) compared to non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, that means they nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors posses less toxic side effects than nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs , although there is greater likely hood of developing drug resistance in case of nonnucleocide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the drug should not be discontinued once it is started and a desired low viral level is maintained throughout. There are also some drug resistance assays available with which one can predict the likely hood of drug resistance with a particular antiretroviral drug.

Edurant rilpivirine is approved by US food and drugs administration as a drug to be used in a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen which is targeted to reduce the HIV virus load in the infected individual . The dose of the drug is once a day pill taken with food.

The drug can be used in patients who had not received any prior HIV therapy as the drug Edurant (rilpivirine) in a clinical trail effectively reduced the initial higher HIV viral load in the blood of infected individuals to a level of HIV virus undetectable level is blood.

Side effects include (insomnia) difficulty sleeping, headache,depression, and rash.
The drug Edurant(rilpivirine) do not cure HIV or AIDS ( no drug in the world cure HIV AIDS rather they help in improving quality of life and extending life) therefore US FDA has advised patients to stay on with continuous with their therapy for HIV and related diseases. and other AIDS symptoms

Source:
http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/48/10/3684?view=long&pmid=15388420

http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm256087.htm




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Links for more information over treatment for HIV positive and AIDS symptoms , new drug research and development on HIV vaccine research, latest updates.



Monday, May 30, 2011

Tests for detection of HIV infection

Test for HIV. Information on HIV   testing
Main principle of detection of HIV infection is presence of antibodies against HIV virus in the HIV virus infceted individual, more reliable tests identify presence of HIV genetic material or RNA for detection of presence of HIV virus infection.

ELISA test detect the presence of antibodies against HIV virus in ones blood, if ELISA test comes out to be positive then a confirmatory test which is known as Western blot is done to confirm the result.
Lastly a test called as polymerase chain reaction PCR is used finally to confirm the presence of HIV virus in once body, as immediately after infection human body don't develop antibodies against the virus, which is also known as latency period, hence alternatively presence of HIV virus in blood can be detected by using polymerase chain reaction, in this test if there is presence of HIV, in blood, the RNA of HIV is picked up by the test and precisely detected, this test is one of most reliable test.
There are other rapid test kits available in market which provides solution to provide test at the point of care in medical emergencies, these tests too are required to be confirmed later with other confirmatory tests for HIV.
Following are some of the rapid tests currently available for detection of HIV infection.
1. Home Access Express HIV-1 Test
2. OraQuick this test can be applied on saliva or oral swabs.
3. Orasure
4. Uni-Gold
5. Clearview Complete HIV 1/2 and Clearview HIV 1/2 Stat-Pak
6. INSTI™ HIV-1 Antibody Test is the latest test available to which gives result in 60 seconds.
7. Reveal HIV
Above test are based on detection of antibodies these test should be confirmed with tests which make use of PSR like Quantiplex bDNA and , branched DNA test , as in latency period person might be tested negative .
CD4 count is not the test for presence of HIV virus , cd4 count may go down in certain viral and bacterial disease or because of certain drugs.

Knowing status of HIV infection as early as possible helps in starting medication, early medications can provide better quality of life.

This post will be updated later and we will try to provide complete technical details about HIV testing.

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Source:
Lists of tests for HIV screening

HIV Testing/resources/qa

OraQuick Rapid Tests for HIV

FDA approved rapid antibody tests for HIV 

PCR test for HIV nucleic acid detection
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Last updated : 30-May-2011


Sunday, May 29, 2011

Dr. A H Bandivdekar finds the inhibitor for sexual transmission of HIV virus.

Dr. A H Bandivdekar finds the inhibitor for sexual transmission of HIV virus.
Dr. A H Bandivdekar Indian scientist found the exact way by which HIV virus gains entry in to human blood in sexual transmission of HIV virus, which is one of the biggest reason for HIV virus infections and AIDS.
We have few great out comes about process HIV virus infection. Amongst them Dr. A H Bandivdekar’s findings about mannose receptor involvement in sexually transmission of HIV virus will be of great value as it is going to save life’s of millions of peoples.

• Some individuals are tested HIV positive for years and do not develop AIDS.

1. There are certain individuals who are tested positive and do not develop symptoms of AIDS or AIDS this is because there is diffrerance in their genetic constitution , which do not allow HIV virus to grow in them so that they do not develop AIDS. Dr. Bruce Walker etal.

2. Just after HIV infection a person do not develop AIDS immediately . In latancy period there is a resistance for replication of HIV virus in lymphocytes in these infected individuals. There are certain CD 8 cells in HIV positive individuals which resist replication of HIV virus by not supporting synthesis of reverse transcriptase enzyme. Identifying these cells and using fractions of these cells could increase the latancy period in HIV positive individuals. Kannagi M etal.

• Work of Dr. A H Bandivdekar :- Finding mannose receptor responsible for transmission of HIV virus through vaginal lining in to blood.

CD4 independent binding of HIV gp120 to mannose receptor on human spermatozoa
Dr. A H Bandivdekar from India , Department of Biochemistry, National Institute for Research in Reproductive Health, Indian Council of Medical Research, Parel, Mumbai, observed that there are certain couples where even after tested HIV positive the HIV virus is not transmitted to the partner ,
Systematic study and thinking by Dr. A H Bandivdekar led him to finding the key difference in the peoples who transmit the disease and who do not.
So far it was known to world that CD4 receptors were responsible for attachment and carrying HIV virus in to blood for further reproduction by replication.
Careful investigation by Dr. A H Bandivdekar proved that there is absence of CD4 receptors in viginal linings , and led to establish the possibility of different receptor responsible for transmission was studied and it was proved that there are different receptors than CD4 now known as mannose receptor are responsible for transmission of HIV trough vaginal lining , and in females which did not got HIV infection even after male partner being HIV positive it was found that these females lacked mannose receptors.
To establish this HIV gp120 protein which is an important part of HIV virus HIV gp120 protein has great role in the process of HIV virus infection was studied for its (HIV gp120 protein) binding to mannose receptors in human spermatozoa by Dr. A H Bandivdekar .
Dr. A H Bandivdekar has now found a molecule which can prevent transmission of HIV virus through these receptor, it will provide life saving remedy for peoples who are at high risk of getting HIV virus infection through sexual transmission.
Dr. A H Bandivdekar’s findings are really appreciable and encouraging the research on HIV and AIDS.

Referances
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18614929

http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2010/05/new-insights-into-the-mystery-of-natural-hiv-immunity/

http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/MeetingAbstracts/ma?f=102196055.html


B V Waghmare (2011). Dr. A H Bandivdekar finds the inhibitor for sexual transmission of HIV virus.
http://bvwaghmare.blogspot.com/ : bvwaghmare



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Last updated: 29-May-2011