Authored By: B. V Waghmare

Friday, October 31, 2008

Information about AIDS |Information about HIV VIRUS| Latest treatment for AIDS HIV | AIDS Vaccine research terning to be neutralising antibody for HIV

Latest treatment for AIDS HIV AIDS Vaccine research directing to neutralising antibody for HIV .what is current treatment available for HIV AIDS. Information on HIV virus AIDS.
If you have all these questions then read through out this website ,
in last post i had mentioned about latest development of antiaids drug Selzentry™ (Maraviroc)
which is a HIV virus inhibitor , it inhibits entry of HIV virus in to T-lymphocytes of human , and there by prevents further infection of new T-cell.
this drug is combined with combivir TM, and is tested by Pfizer, results are found very satisfactory.
Virus count can go as low so that it may not be detected. this is what is claimed by MERIT study and i hope is good for the world.
Well this is not the last stop for the research for HIV .
we have to develop two more drugs.
1.HIV virus attachment inhibitors
2.HIV AIDS neutralising antibodies.....This is very important.
as there is very little out come coming from latest research work on vaccine , and this is very time consuming but it is very important also.
but what about the peoples all ready infected, to treat them we should develop HIV AIDS neutralising antibodies ,That means the antibodies will find new virus and form a complex around the HIV virus and dissolve this virus rendering it nonvirulent , this can be done by genetic engineering , we should develop antibodies which has high affinity towards HIV core proteins and enzymes.imagine a antibody for reverse transcriptase ....can we do it(shouting)....YE S!
we can do it.
it is better to specifically target and kill HIV virus with these neutralising antibodies for HIV , if these are combined with Selzentry™ (Maraviroc) and ZIDOVUDINE (AZT) +lamivudine. results will be far better and a definite assured treatment for AIDS can be provided to millions of peoples affected.
The peoples who are affected with this disease should read me as there are very few peoples who can assure all of them for future of HIV AIDS treatment and i am one of them who has guarantee that one day we will win over this disease.
How to develop Neutralising antibodies for HIV AIDS virus:-
step 1:- Isolate HIV all strains
step 2 :-Attenuate fragment the HIV virus
step 3:- Inject in suitable animal and find out the triggered antibody production
step 4 :- Isolate the antibodies from the animal body by adsorption electrophoresisalcohol denaturantion followed by hydration.
Step 5 :-Treatment with Viricidal agent
Step 6 :- Formulation in to a suitable ready to be used parantraly formulation.
Though i have written 6 steps , these are very important and very valuable
You will find allmost all future developments and research for treatment for AIDS and drug development .
You will find answers of all questions over this blog related to HIV AIDS
Keep reading this blog to find what is the latest treatment for AIDS HIV,
What is current research and development over HIV AIDS vaccine and Anti AIDS therapy treatment . Information on HIV virus AIDS.

Send this blog by email to your friends and dear ones to fight against HIV AIDS ,by doing so you are joining me in the fight Against HIV AIDS ,there is a link below every post as email this post you can use this for emailing this blog to your friends.



Question and Answers about HIV Testing -->

Signes and symptoms of AIDS and HIV infection-->

Basic Information about HIV and AIDS ==>


Last updated : 31-Oct-2008

Thursday, October 30, 2008

Pfizer's HIV/AIDS Chemotherapeutic agent |Anti HIV drug Selzentry™ (Maraviroc) Demonstrates Increased Efficacy Rate In Treatment-newly infected HIV

Pfizer's HIV/AIDS Chemotherapeutic agent Anti HIV drug Selzentry™ (Maraviroc) Demonstrates Increased Efficacy Rate In Treatment-newly infected HIV PatientsResults of chemotherapy are getting better for HIV AIDS infected individuals !
This is a latest treatment for AIDS HIV which is life saving.
As I had written in my earlier post about development of effective and best chemotherapy for providing a effective and assured treatment to HIV positive peoples.
I had always stressed up on for developing different steps inhibitors for HIV virus in combination will provide great results than providing immunity by vaccine.
As in later case the immunity provider cell mediated immunity it self is under attack, so it will yield very less than that of combination therapy.
That is combination of Anti HIV AIDS drugs together.
Reverse transcriptase inhibitor + attachment inhibitor + drugs interfering in entry of HIV virus in human T-lymphocytes + immunoglobulin (Neutralizing antibodies against HIV virus)

Well now this is time to find the great treatment available in today’s time for AIDS.
That is combination of Selzentry (maraviroc) a virus entry inhibitor with combivir –reverse transcriptase inhibitor –it is (a combination of zidovudine or AZT and lamivudine or 3TC)

Results of combination of Selzentry (maraviroc) + AZT+ lamivudine are wonderfull .
It has given result to the extent that the virus count has drastically lowered to a undetectable level.And if in coming time we are able to develop another drug which inhibit virus attachment to human T-lymphocyte then probably treatment for HIV AIDS will be complete and sure and a life saving .

We can enhance the effect of anti AIDS therapy by providing immunoglobulines in later stage and some blood components to counteract the cytotoxic effect of these drugs.

Mode of Action of Selzentry (maraviroc) :-
Selzentry (maraviroc) is a HIV virus entry inhibitor to T-Lymphocytes and works by blocking HIV Virus from entering human cells. Specifically maraviroc is a selective, slowly reversible, small molecule antagonist of the interaction between human CCR5 and HIV-1 gp120. Maraviroc selectively binds to the human chemokine receptor CCR5 present on the membrane of CD4 cells (T-Lymphocytes), preventing the interaction of HIV-1 gp120 and CCR5 necessary for CCR5-tropic HIV-1 to enter cells.

Patients which were taking Selzentry, in combination with Combivir ® (zidovudine/lamivudine) and selected by an enhanced sensitivity tropism test to screen patients, experienced a 68 percent rate of virologic suppression to undetectable levels.
MERIT (Maraviroc versus Efavirenz Regimens as Initial Therapy)

reanalysis 68 percent of patients in the Selzentry arm, and 68 percent of patients in the efavirenz arm - a current standard of care - achieved suppression of the virus to undetectable levels (less than 50 copies/ml). When the criterion of less than 400 copies/ml was used, the results were 73 percent with Selzentry, and 72 percent with efavirenz.

Michael Saag, Professor of Medicine and Director of the Center for AIDS Research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, who presented the results.
Said "The results of MERIT ES are exciting as they show that with an enhanced sensitivity tropism assay the efficacy rate of Selzentry shown in MERIT with the original Trofile assay is improved further,"
"These findings are important for patients and physicians and offer guidance for clinical practice with the only version of Trofile currently available."

About the MERIT Study MERIT was a Phase 3 study designed to evaluate the antiretroviral activity of Selzentry (300 mg twice daily) compared to efavirenz (600 mg once daily), a current standard of care, in combination with Combivir (zidovudine/lamivudine) in CCR5-tropic HIV-1 infected patients who had never received antiretroviral therapy and had no evidence of resistance to any of the drugs used in the study.

Selzentry is discovered by Pfizer scientists in 1997, Selzentry is an oral medicine that blocks HIV AIDS virus entry to human cells. Rather than fighting HIV inside white blood cells , Selzentry tm prevents the virus from entering uninfected cells by blocking its predominant entry route, the CCR5 co-receptor.

So there are great Hopes to patients who are infected with HIV virus , they should keep faith one day we will become successful in providing a very effective treatment for AIDS .
As I see in future one more drug coming up that is attachment inhibitor
That will give us an good option for treatment for HIV AIDS.

Keep reading this blog to find what is the latest treatment for AIDS HIV,
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms

What is current research and development over HIV AIDS vaccine and Anti AIDS therapy treatment . Information on HIV virus AIDS. AIDS symptoms SYMPTOMS OF HIV HIV symptoms
Send this blog by email to your friends and dear ones to fight against HIV AIDS ,by doing so you are joining me in the fight Against HIV AIDS ,there is a link below every post as email this post you can use this for emailing this blog to your friends.

Last updated : 30-Oct-2008

Wednesday, October 29, 2008

Why it is difficult to develop a vaccine for HIV AIDS | what is the best treatment for HIV| What should be the direction of HIV AIDS research

Why it is difficult to develop a vaccine for HIV AIDS .
what is the best solution treatment to fight HIV AIDS .
What should be the direction of HIV AIDS treatment and research on developing drugs and vaccine for HIV AIDS.

I came across news last week about failures of HIV AIDS VACCINE, especially Merck developed HIV vaccine,
I is a great thing and the approach is great and valuable they have actually tagged genetic information (GEN) on a cold virus, but again the immune system is so complex , a specific antigen is required for a trigger of immune response antibody production, rather it would have produced but the measure and span is critical,
But I am with these scientist who had put days and nights to develop this vaccine, and really there is nothing great thing than a failure ,it has also its greatness , so I respect them and I will like to advocate their approach .
Why we faced the failure:-
1.Human immune system is very complex .it requires specific antigen to trigger the immune response . may be the presentation of antigen may be not proper, if we present this antigen in a form of Liposome ,intramuscular . Things could have been different.

2.It was not a complete antigen , it was a part antigen …what I want to say is already said about it
3.lot of other factors are responsible like strain of HIV AIDS virus gene isolated etc.

one should not give up this research as there are still some hopes only the scientist associated with this research will understand what I mean to say.

What is urgent requirement of today’s time to fight against HIV virus AIDS :

As one is infected with the HIV aids virus , the life of person is on stake .
We should save this life .
How we can do this .
As I discussed in my earlier post
1.We should develop more effective chemotherapy which is best effective and is able to inhibit completely enzyme reverse transcriptase .Zudovoudine lamivoudine category drugs.
2.Intigrase inhibitors
3.Intercalase inhibitors
4.HIV Virus attachment inhibitors

The most important is to develop antibodies for HIV Virus, all strains
We should develop neutralizing antibodies which will neutralize the virulence of newly budding HIV virus in human body. This can be done by genetic engendering and is a big topic for discussion .
These neutralizing antibodies along with combination of drugs will prove best for treating HIV AIDS patients .
We will be able to save lots of life around the world.
I pray to god for giving lot of success to the research in this field as it is very important requirement of time.

Keep reading this blog to find what is the latest treatment for AIDS HIV, What is current research and development over HIV AIDS vaccine and Anti AIDS therapy treatment .Information on HIV virus AIDS.
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms
Send this blog by email to your friends and dear ones to fight against HIV AIDS ,by doing so you are joining me in the fight Against HIV AIDS ,there is a link below every post as email this post yu can use this for emailing this blog to your friends.

Information about HIV Virus AIDS symptoms


Last updated : 29-Oct-2008

Tuesday, October 28, 2008


Before you know what exactly is this website about i want to write some introduction about this website.
You will find lot of information about HIV AIDS on this website which you will never find it elsewhere as this website is personally written by a scientist who is working on HIV vaccine and development of DNA vaccines for treatment of HIV/aids and for prevention and cure for millions of peoples affected with this disease.
As this website is completely dedicated for research on aids chemotherapy of HIV/AIDS.
there is great information a person affected should know ,as well as you can find research work of Dr. Routy on HIV vaccine and personalised vaccine also you will find lot of things about current research into HIV/AIDS and its effective treatment .Detail about HIV & aids and mode of action of drugs like zudovudine and lamivudine and reverse transcriptase inhibitors ,you can find steps in development of the HIV virus .
There is always a question of average life of HIV patient in minds of a person infected ,but i will like to tel you that if you are taking medication properly there are great chances of better life so read this website in details for better conclusion on aids/HIV treatment .
You will find answers of your questions after reading this blog in details like
what are the difficulty to develop a vaccine towards HIV-1 and eradicate the disease
How we can use DNA reconbimnant technology for developing a HIV aids vaccine
What is emergency aids preventive shot
How emergency aids preventive shot works
Why HIV is undetected by human body in hibernation period
What is HIV antibody hibernation
What is tuberculosis coinfection in HIV aids patients
What are the hopes for medicine invented aids near future
what are the latest research towards cure of HIV aids
How are liposomes used in developing HIV vaccines
What are novel drug delivery system used for developing vaccine for better treatment of AIDS patients
What are the precautionary steps to prevent the exposure of HIV
What is the prevention of attachment inhibitors and their research
What is recent HIV research treatment remedies prevention
What steps a person should take for HIV prevention
What are the symptoms of HIV
What is vaccine development against aids and aids research
What is the development of HIV in our body
Why can the antigen of HIV virus can not be detected properly by our immune system
Why is it difficult to develop a vaccine towards HIV-1 and eradicate the disease
This blog is a place where a person affected with this disease will find lots of good things , hence i recommend all to read this blog in detail
Keep reading this blog to find what is the latest treatment for AIDS HIV,
What is current research and development over HIV AIDS vaccine and Anti AIDS therapy treatment . Information on HIV virus AIDS.
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms
Send this blog by email to your friends and dear ones to fight against HIV AIDS ,by doing so you are joining me in the fight Against HIV AIDS ,there is a link below every post as email this post you can use this for emailing this blog to your friends.


Basic Information about HIV and AIDS ==>


Last updated : 28-Oct-2008

Saturday, October 18, 2008


As a researcher I have lot of questions in my mind about HIV AIDS I asked very important questions ,answers of which even I was not able to find, and I thought Dr.Uttam will be able to answer them as he associated with latest research on HIV AIDS and he is providing latest treatment for AIDS.
he knows about my depth of interest for current research and development in the field of HIV vaccine and anti AIDS drugs and my eager to help HIV infected hiv positive peoples around the world and even he has treated lot of HIV patients for various aliments, be it a operation on HIV infected patient or what ever , he is doing very hard work to provide latest to latest treatment for AIDS to them them.
Me:"Dr.Uttam very important question in my mind that I wan to ask you is
Will there be a complete, sure ,and a life saving treatment available in coming time as doctor I am very much interested in this rather than just knowing about what is current mode of treatment for HIV infected individuals please tel me” .

Dr.Uttam:-“As you are day and nights and for last 15 years thinking about this question you are a very known pharmacist and a very knowledgeable person you better know about this.

Definitely! There is going to be a life saving treatments for HIV AIDS in coming times.
There is research going on Personalized HIV AIDS vaccine which means that a patient will be treated by taking out some blood out of his body and this blood sample will be utilized to make a partial antibodies vaccine for triggering immune response in early stage.

Today chemotherapy is also advancing towards better and better and effective drugs specific drugs are available to control viral load . I don’t say that they are completely 100% effective but if we treat an individual with the current available anti AIDS drugs results are good.
That means one can live his life span only thing is that he has to follow doctors advice.
And in coming days if we are able to bring up Molecules which are very effective
1. Reverse transcriptase inhibitor
2. Intigrase inhibitor.
3. Intercalase inhibitor.
4. Virus attachment inhibitors
5. Immunoglobulin.
These classes of drugs are very important and if we are able to develop them
We will certainly can treat an individual and save millions of life's around the world.
As in case of Tuberculosis infection. I am not talking about TB associated with AIDS but Tuberculosis infection it self with out HIV.
Today we have a sure shot drug in combination, and we are saving 100% life's by these drugs.
I hope same will be the situation for HIV AIDS in coming 10 years we will be having a complete treatment for HIV AIDS by making effective combination of above classes of drugs.

In case of AIDS where there is full blown high load of virus , we should have specifically designed immunoglobulin which will protect the person from further opportunistic infections.
These treatments are costly but life is also very important, we are wasting millions of Dollars on WARS and ammunition's every country in this world is wasting so much money on fighting with human being.
If they will take out 1% of the funds from each country around the glob, I am sure that we will be able to save lots of life's.
But today unfortunately we are lacking in development of above mentioned drugs, I mean attachment inhibitors.
As you have written earlier in this blog about attachment inhibitors. Research on this molecule is highly required.
Who will help us are a Medicinal Chemist, Organic Chemist. Pharmacologists Pharmacist immunologists, microbiologists all of we have to come together to develop attachment inhibitors”.
ME:"Dr.Uttam other important question , what precautions one has to take if he gets a prick of needle which is infected with HIV" ?

Dr.Uttam :-
"One has to take following actions immediately.
First:- give few cuts around the prick so as to expose the point of prick so as to squeeze out the blood rapidly.
This will mechanically remove the infected blood.
This has to be practiced in presence of a trained Doctor or surgeon,
Taking precautions that these procedures do not contaminate any thing.
Second :-Immediately rinse the wound with dilute solution of Hydrogen peroxide allow good time exposure of hydrogen peroxide solution with tissue. as this is a very good viricidal agent should not be given orally in any case as it will be dangerous.
Third step:- you have to take is wash wound with alcohol .

Fourth Step :-Apply Povidine iodine solution or cream over the wound and apply dressing over it.

These steps have to be carried out with in minutes of accidental prick.

After this patient should be put on HAART. (refer my post for what is HAART on this blog)
That is he should take anti retro viral drugs for prescribed period with out any break.
Intravenous Immunoglobulin will definitely provide increase shield and protection so this is very important.

After this treatment it is quite possible that we have reduced the virulence of HIV virus , but still the proteins of this ineffective virus can trigger and give us high antibody results in tests for such patients so this is not the case of AIDS, there are very less chances that such patients will get AIDS unless they have not adhered to prescribed medicine by your doctor".

"Dr.Uttam i have observed that there are lot of suicidal tendancise amongst the HIV infected peoples what is the reason for that"?.
Due to stess and fear of deth a person goes in depression and and depression further worsens and bring about nerveous tissue damage ,
so i will like to tel all the peoples diagnosed positive for HIV that , you will not immidiately become sick but if you start a prompt and proper tretment still there are lot of hopes from life,
No one in this world could avoid deth ,what if some one dies in accident , do he cries and make himself dipressed but its sudden .
just keep in mind that this life if very precious you should live its bitterness as well as you have lived the happyness earlier .we have 100 years of life a year has 365 days that means maximum we have 36500 days of life and we should live life as it comes we should think this life as a picknic ,so do we cry any time in our picknick..certainly no ,rather we keep on enjoying , same way if you concentrate on creative work your body will get stronger and stronger and will fight HIV but if you get dipressed your self you will loss
same was the setuation of Tuberculosis in early century but today i can eat in same plate as that of my patients becouse i know i can defeat this disease so same situation will be there tommarow for HIV AIDS.
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms
About Dr.Uttam:-
Dr.Uttam is a clinical practitioner from Mumbai and has encountered and treating lots of patients with HIV AIDS and has helped them to upgrade there life .He has helped my friend to write his blog on

source :
Basic Information about HIV and AIDS ==>

Last updated: 18-Oct-2008

Sunday, October 12, 2008

Development of HIV Virus attachment inhibitors very important step in Research and Development of Anti AIDS drugs.

Development of HIV Virus attachment inhibitors a very important step in Research and Development of Anti AIDS drugs :
Today i am very much interested to tel all of you about development of a precise drug molecule for treating HIV AIDS patients .
The class of such drug is Attachment inhibitor.
This drug is very important as .
just imagine two cells T-lymphocytes placed near each other in situ.
and the viruses are budding out of them but the next virus is not able to gain entry in to cell ,
and consequently , virus is getting killed by other Viricidal drugs.
there is wast scope for research on this group of drugs.
as earlier i have written in my earlier post about Amantadine

(1-aminoadamantane )

Amantadine has two cyclic rings with a amine group attached to it ,and a primary amine with 4 or 6 carbon chain is a common structure for any amino acid which is used as building block for a protein ,any protein .so the glycoprotein which is present on HIV virus , counter CD4 receptor can be fooled by this group of drugs by

1.Hindering the Attachment site over T-Lymphocytes .(CD4 receptor).

2.By forming a Hydrogen bonding with amino acids over HIV virus glycoprotein gp 120 (CD4-gp120 binding inhibitor)
this can be attained with the help of these drugs by designing a molecule which will mimic amino acids .Example Lysine. which is simple to mimic .
we have to design a antagonist for Amino acids,
which will precisely form a hydrogen bonding with gp120 protein and inhibit the CD4 receptor by antagonistically with virus and prevent virus entry in to new T-Lymphatic cells.
Molecules studied for this purpose are BMS -488043 and BMS-378806

if these class of drugs are developed and available for treatment of AIDS HIV positive patients , there will be a better treatment available for HIV AIDS patients world wide in future ,
This is a very bigger topic and there is lot of scope over this types of drugs and needs to be studied and researched extensively.If we are able to develop a effective attchment inhibitor it will provide best treatment for AIDS ,Latest treatment for AIDS
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms

Author of this article is a Pharmacist from Mumbai University and he has written articles on
Personalised HIV AIDS vaccine research he has also written article on HIV AIDS DNA vaccine and protein part vaccines and Development of Chemotherapy for HIV AIDS .



Last updated: 12-Oct-2008

Thursday, October 9, 2008


This is a great moment in the field of HIV AIDS research ,late but is proper .
without which it could have been impossible task to design Chemotherapy and to develop Vaccine as the Nobel winer made it possible to clone HIV 1 virus genome and this is now used to develop DNA vaccine as i described in my earlier post on Development of HIV Vaccine by help of Bacterial vector.
following is the details of Nobel Prize winners.
One German and 2 French researchers are awarded Nobel Prize in Medicine.
STOCKHOLM : Harald zur Hausen of Germany and the French researchers Franoise Barr-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier were announced Monday as the winners of the 2008 Nobel Prize in Medicine.Barr-Sinoussi, of the Institut Pasteur in Paris, and Montagnier, director of the World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention, were cited for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, which causes AIDS.Zur Hausen was cited for finding human papilloma viruses that cause cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women.The German scientist received half of the prize, worth 10 million kronor, or $1.4 million, while the two French researchers shared the other half.In its citation, the Nobel Assembly said Barr-Sinoussi' s andMontagnier's discovery was one prerequisite for the current understanding of the biology of AIDS and its antiretroviral treatment. The pair's work in the early 1980s made it possible to clone the HIV-1 genome."This has allowed identification of important details in its replication cycle and how the virus interacts with its host," the citation said. "Furthermore, it led to development of methods to diagnose infected patients and to screen blood."The assembly said zur Hausen "went against current dogma" when he found that oncogenic human papilloma virus, or HPV, caused cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women."His discovery has led to characterization of the natural history of HPV infection, an understanding of mechanisms of HPV-induced carcinogenesis and the development of prophylactic vaccines against HPV acquisition, " the citation said.Alfred Nobel, the Swede who invented dynamite, established the prizes in his will in the categories of medicine or physiology, physics, chemistry, literature and peace. The economics prize is technically not a Nobel but a 1968 creation of Sweden 's central bank.The awards include the money, a diploma and an invitation to the prize ceremonies in Stockholm and Oslo on Dec. 10, the anniversary of Nobel's death in 1896.Nobel left few instructions on how to select winners, but medicine winners are typically awarded for a specific breakthrough rather than a body of research.The award to Barr-Sinoussi was something of a milestone. Only seven women had won the medicine prize since the first Nobel Prizes were handed out in 1901.The last female winner of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was the American researcher Linda Buck, who shared the prize in 2004 with Richard Axel.They won for their work in studying odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system in human beings.Last year the award went to Mario Capecchi and Oliver Smithies of the United States and Martin Evans of Britain for work that led to a powerful and widely used technique to manipulate genes in mice, which has helped scientists study heart disease, diabetes, cancer, cystic fibrosis and other diseases.Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms
Information about HIV Virus AIDS symptoms



Last updated :09-Oct-2008

Sunday, October 5, 2008

HIV AIDS Vaccine development by using DNA recombinant technology using bacterial plasmid of HIV virus gene

HIV AIDS oral vaccine development by using DNA recombinant technology. By using bacterial plasmid of HIV virus gene

There are many hurdles in the way of development of HIV vaccine as
1.HIV Virus DNA material keeps on mutating(changing) from one person to other
2.HIV Virus in hibernation stage do not get detected by immune system for log time
as it get hibernated in tissue without expressing significant signal to trigger immune response .
3. We should consider all the routs of entry of a HIV virus in to human body.
Which are
1. Blood to blood contact
2. Body fluid contact of an infected person with a normal person’s mucosal lining.

In all of this HIV virus get entry in to human body .and its first job is to deliver its genetic material that is RNA which will make Virus c-DNA copy by a process called reverse transcription. This c-DNA forms a actual double helical DNA of HIV virus this DNA is integrated in HUMAN cell that is T-Lymphocytes, and when ever our body T-lymphocyte tries to produce proteins and enzymes for our body .this HIV Virus DNA integrated cell also produces all Proteins and enzymes required for HIV Virus, thus a new HIV virus is reproduced in Human body. This way HIV Virus uses our body cell (White blood cells …which imparts defense mechanism to our body ….are damaged )

Our Directional Goal for developing HIV vaccine should be .
After a deep thought I am coming up with a idia of developing a DNA vaccine for HIV .
Our direction for doing this should be as follows.

1. Develop a HIV DNA copy. That is a gene Example a gp120 gene
2. Integrate in to a bacterial vector.
3. Make its plasmid (refer this link for knowing what is plasmid)
4. We can use Bacteria for example weakened E.coli / Salmonella typhi

These above 4 line are very important in development of the vaccine this requires lot of hard work and patience.

Now inject or give orally these bacterial host cells to normal individual whom we want to impart a immunity against a up coming HIV viral infection.
Now when ever this bacterium tries to multiply by its own it will produce...HIV virus proteins only ….
So that our body recognizes these proteins as Antigen and triggers off an immune response against HIV VIRUS proteins.
We can better way design a plasmid
This will specifically code only for Counter CD4 receptors proteins sequences as there is only this region of a virus which is not much changing. So we are now on with a DNA Vaccine.
Which can be estimated its efficacy by measuring
Neutralizing antibody response against HIV-1
Neutralising response to cd4 protein.
Information on HIV Virus and AIDS symptoms

About author
Author of this article is a Pharmacist from Mumbai University and he had writen articles on HIV AIDS vaccine development way back in 1995.


Last updated : 05-Oct-2008

Wednesday, October 1, 2008

Steps for Prevention of HIV .

It is very easy to prevent one self from not getting infected with HIV rather than to do so brain storming years of research and development of anti AIDS Drugs and Vaccine .


Read and spread about the precautionary steps which i have mentioned over this website follow them properly.See the article on safe sex to learn how to reduce the chance of acquiring or spreading HIV, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
Try not to use injected drugs. If IV drugs are used, do not share needles or syringes. Many communities now have needle exchange programs, where you can get rid of used syringes and get new, sterile ones for free. These programs can also provide referrals to addiction treatment.
Avoid contact with another person's blood. Protective clothing, masks, and goggles may be appropriate when caring for people who are injured.
Anyone who tests positive for HIV can pass the disease to others and should not donate blood, plasma, body organs, or sperm. An infected person should tell any prospective sexual partner about their HIV-positive status. They should not exchange body fluids during sexual activity, and should use whatever preventive measures (such as condoms) will give the partner the most protection.
HIV-positive women who wish to become pregnant should seek counseling about the risk to unborn children, and medical advances that may help prevent the fetus from becoming infected. Use of certain medications can dramatically reduce the chances that the baby will become infected during pregnancy.
Mothers who are HIV-positive should not breast feed their babies.
Safe-sex practices, such as latex condoms, are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission. HOWEVER, there remains a risk of acquiring the infection even with the use of condoms. Abstinence is the only sure way to prevent sexual transmission of HIV.
The riskiest sexual behavior is unprotected receptive anal intercourse -- the least risky sexual behavior is receiving oral sex. Performing oral sex on a man is associated with some risk of HIV transmission, but this is less risky than unprotected vaginal intercourse. Female-to-male transmission of the virus is much less likely than male-to-female transmission. Performing oral sex on a woman who does not have her period carries low risk of transmission.
HIV-positive patients who are taking anti-retroviral medications are less likely to transmit the virus. For example, pregnant women who are on effective treatment at the time of delivery, and who have undetectable viral loads, give HIV to the infant less than 1% of the time, compared with about 20% of the time if medications are not used.
The US blood supply is among the safest in the world. Nearly all people infected with HIV through blood transfusions received those transfusions before 1985, the year HIV testing began for all donated blood. Currently, the risk of infection with HIV through a blood transfusion or blood products is almost zero in the United States, even in geographic areas with a lot of HIV infections.
If you believe you have been exposed to HIV, seek medical attention IMMEDIATELY. There is some evidence that an immediate course of antiviral drugs can reduce the chances that you will be infected. This is called post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), and has been used to treat health care workers injured by needlesticks, to prevent transmission.
There is less information available about how effective PEP is for people exposed to HIV through sexual activity or IV drug use. However, if you believe you have been exposed, you should discuss the possibility with a knowledgeable specialist (check local AIDS organizations for the latest information) as soon as possible. Anyone who has been raped should be offered PEP and should consider its potential risks and benefits.


Basic Information about HIV and AIDS ==>


Last updated : 01-Oct-2008

Genetics Research Advances Possibility of HIV Vaccine

Genetics Research Advances Possibility of HIV Vaccine
Today I am writing some important research findings on HIV AIDS vaccine research .I am always optimistic regarding future of HIV vaccine and surly some day we will be successful get this , and reason why I feel that we are marching ahead with detailed studies about virus , and here is reference for HLA-1 can be genetically mapped and engineered , and this can be used as a part vaccine. Read further this website you will be assured of this, as this place you will find what is going on HIV AIDS research and drugs which are being currently used to treat this disease.
Study conducted at Massachusetts General HospitalHIV Vaccine Research has discovered how the HIV virus escapes the human body’s immune system.
The research collaborative - involving scientists from the British Columbia Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), Microsoft Research and Los Alamos National Laboratory - used highly computer-intensive, cutting-edge statistical research methods to find out how the HIV virus mutates to escape the human body’s immune system.
Specifically, HLA class 1’ is a controlling part of the human immune response. The ability of HIV to escape recognition by HLA class 1 leaves the body incapable of finding and fighting the virus.
Detailed study, published in the July issue of PLoS Pathogens, is the largest population-based investigation of how natural variations in HLA class 1 can influence HIV genetic sequence, as well as the first characterization of changes in multiple HIV genes in response to HLA-associated evolutionary pressure.
Scientist’s have successfully mapped sites within particular HIV genes where variations can improve the virus’s ability to escape immune recognition, showing this is predictable based upon the HIV patient’s individual HLA class 1 profile.
"This is a novel and advanced description of how the human immune system attacks the virus, and how it responds" says Richard Harrigan, PhD, director of the Center’s Research Laboratories and study co-author. "While we always knew the body attacks the virus and the virus changes to dodge pressure, we’re now more exact in knowing how this happens in people."
While the study is valuable in helping the scientific community understands how immune pressure impacts HIV, these findings hold tremendous promise in terms of global HIV efforts, says Sabrina Brume, PhD, the study’s lead author. "Achieving a more in-depth understanding of the ways in which HIV mutates to avoid the human immune system will help with the design of an HIV vaccine," says Brume, who is now with the Partners AIDS Research Center at MGH.
Data were collected from the British Columbia HOMER cohort, a large group of chronically HIV-infected, treatment-na ve individuals for whom HLA class-1 typing and HIV RNA genotyping were performed.
Microsoft Research provided personnel and advanced software tools to perform highly sophisticated statistical analysis. Algorithms developed by David Heckerman, lead researcher of the Machine Learning and Applied Statistics Group at Microsoft Research and study co-author, and his team allowed for more in-depth analysis of the data sets. "We created the software tools to help researchers exploit the power of computing to more quickly and accurately identify the crucial elements of an effective HIV vaccine," said Heckerman.
The original idea for the development of these statistical methods came from Bette Korber, PhD, at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Korber and co-researchers Tanmoy Bhattacharya, PhD, and Marcus Daniels worked with Heckerman in further developing the cutting-edge statistical approach.
Study results demonstrate that population-based approaches could complement smaller functional studies by providing a whole-gene or whole-virus picture of immune escape. Previous B.C. Centre research published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases investigated the role of HLA class 1 variation on response to anti-HIV therapy. "Moving forward, we’ll be expanding our genetic research to other HIV genes. We’ll also be investigating the role of drug therapy," says Harrigan.Information about HIV Virus AIDS symptoms
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Last updated: 01-Oct-2008